Institute of Materials Science

Institute of Materials Science was known as Institute of Physical Electronics till Feb 1, 2010. The Institute of Physical Electronics was founded in 1994 after the reorganization of the Scientific Center of Semiconductor Microelectronics "Microlira" of Kaunas Institute of Radio Measurement Technique.

K. Baršausko St. 59
LT-51423 Kaunas, Lithuania
phone: +370 (37) 313 432
phone/fax: +370 (37) 314 423
e-mail: mmi@ktu.lt

materials.ktu.edu

 
 
 
 

  • image
    2017-06-29 08:45
    Professor Sigitas Tamulevičius was invited by the President of Christian Albrecht University in Kiel to visit the University and deliver a lecture during  Kiel week (Kieler Woche, June 19 – 25, 2017) ). The lecture „Nanoparticles, nanocomposites – from optics to medicine“ was given by professor at the Technical...
    image
    2017-05-25 10:15
    KTU Honorary Doctor Horst-Günter Rubahn receives Fyens Stiftstidende’s Researcher Prize   Prof. Horst-Günter Rubahn, Director, Mads Clausen Institute, SDU (Denmark)
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  • image
    2017-06-29 08:45
    Professor Sigitas Tamulevičius was invited by the President of Christian Albrecht University in Kiel to visit the University and deliver a lecture during  Kiel week (Kieler Woche, June 19 – 25, 2017) ). The lecture „Nanoparticles, nanocomposites – from optics to medicine“ was given by professor at the Technical...
    image
    2017-05-25 10:15
    KTU Honorary Doctor Horst-Günter Rubahn receives Fyens Stiftstidende’s Researcher Prize   Prof. Horst-Günter Rubahn, Director, Mads Clausen Institute, SDU (Denmark)
    image
    2016-09-06 15:45
    As every year, 18th international conference-school „Advanced Materials and Technologies“ was held in Palanga in the end of August. This school is an excellent opportunity for PhD students and young researchers to develop common and special skills as well as to meet with international collaborators. In 2016, more...
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Vision

Scientific, educational, cultural and educational activities, which creates preconditions to satisfy the country's economic and scientific development needs of rapid change and increasing competition, to build an information and knowledge society, to achieve the international recognition of the country's intellectual potential.

Mission

High scientific excellence university research institute, which carries out fundamental and applied research with emphasis on national and European research priorities, actively participating in the creation and the development of high technologies in Lithuania, integrated into all levels of university study process, providing analytical, scientific and technological services to business partners.

Major research activities

Nanotechnologies:

  • thin films and surface engineering;
  • application of laser, ion and plasma methods for formation of nanostructures and nanomaterials;
  • micro technologies;
  • diffractive optics; biosensors.

Optical document security:

  • micro optical elements, interference filters;
  • development of new materials and structures.

Partners

Foreign Scientific Institutions:

Kiel University (Germany);

University of Poitiers (France);

University of Maine (France);

University of Southern Denmark (Denmark);

O. O. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry (Ukraine);

Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland).

Lithuanian science institution:

Vilnius University;

Center for Physical Sciences and Technology;

Aleksandras Stulginskis University;

Panevėžys Mechatronics Center.

Lithuanian state institutions:

Service of Technological Security of State Documents;

Lithuanian Metrology Inspectorate.

Partners for manufacture:

Vilniaus Ventos puslaidininkiai;

JSC “Precizika Metrology”;

JSC “Technologija”;

JSC „Teravil”;

JSC “Sebra”;

JSC “Lodvila”.

Studies

DOCTORAL STUDIES

MODULES

MMI certified study MODULES

Nr.

kodas

pavadinimas

koordinuoja

Studijų programa

1

T150B021

Nanostructures and Nanomaterials

Š. Meškinis

Materials and nanotechnologies

2

T150B209

Sensors and Their Technologies

Š. Meškinis

Materials and nanotechnologies

3

T150B186

Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies

V. Grigaliūnas

Materials and nanotechnologies

MA+ block of competencies „Nanotechnology engineering“:

T150M221 Nanoscience: Design, Deposition and Analysis of the Nanomaterials (coordinator Š. Meškinis)
T150M222 Clean Room Technologies (coordinator V. Grigaliūnas)
T165M001 Optical Technologies and Spectroscopy (coordinator A. Tamulevičienė)

Optional Competence of MA+

Laboratory works

  1. Identification of documents\banknotes security elements.

Objective: to obtain knowledge about basic means of preventing documents\banknotes from counterfeiting and forgery; to get to know modern document authenticity evaluation techniques generally used in document security technologies; to learn to identify banknotes\documents.

  1. Control of submicron elements by the optical analyser NIKON – S.

Objective: to observe linear and stepper dimensions of submicron elements in passing light. Measured values range from 0.5 to 190 µm.

  1. Measurement of parameters of dielectric films by laser ellipsometer.

Objective: to obtain understanding about basic principles of ellipsometry as well as measured quantities and to measure the optical parameters of dielectric films using the laser ellipsometer „Gaertner L115“.

  1. Surface wetting angle measurement.

Objective: to determine the wetting angle of a given sample after physical, chemical, mechanical, ion plasma etc. impact; to plot diagrams of surface wettability.

  1. Measurement of reflectance and transmittance coefficients using photometer FO – 1.

Objective: to gain knowledge about basic quantities describing photometric properties of materials; to measure coefficients of reflectance or transmittance of given samples for different wavelengths of light using photometer FO – 1.

  1. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy.

Objective: to obtain knowledge about infrared (IR) spectroscopy method; to learn about spectrophotometer SPECORD 75, used for spectra recording; to identify the polymer mixtures by infrared spectroscopy technique.

  1. Measurement of colours by spectrophotometry method.

Objective: to gain knowledge about basic quantities describing photometric properties and colour of materials; to measure reflectance coefficient of given samples for different wavelengths of light by photometer FO – 1; to calculate the main characteristics of sample colour.

  1. Atomic absorption spectral analysis.

Objective: to learn about the major principles of atomic absorption spectral analysis and measurable quantities; to measure the concentration of copper in solution using atomic absorption spectrometer AAS-M403 „Perkin Elmer”.

  1. The formation of dielectric coating (SiO2) by electron beam in vacuum.

Objective: to gain knowledge about the formation technique of coatings (SiO2) in vacuum by electron beam; to form SiO2 dielectric coatings of various thicknesses on Si substrates using an electron gun.

  1. Investigation of ceramics employing X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies

Objective: to familiarize with the methods of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy; to investigate surface of the ceramic sample using „XSAM800 Kratos Analytical” X-ray photoelectron spectrometer.

  1. Laser interference lithography

Objective: to familiarize with fabrication technology of periodical structures, namely laser interference lithography; to fabricate periodical structures in photoresist; to estimate the period of fabricated diffraction grating and orientation of gratings in respect to each other; to measure linear dimensions and quality of fabricated structures employing optical microscope.

  1. Investigation of semiconductor laser

Objective: to familiarize with optical electronics semiconductor devices, light diode, semiconductor laser, photodiode; to investigate current-voltage and luxampere characteristics of semiconductor laser; to estimate dependence of efficiency on power used by laser; to evaluate forbidden gap width and external quantum efficiency of semiconductor.

  1. Investigation of periodical structures employing optical methods

Objective: to familiarize with investigation of periodical structures employing optical methods; to evaluate diffraction efficiency of periodical structures; to estimate their geometrical dimensions employing optical microscope.

  1. Ultraviolet and visible light spectroscopy

Objective: to familiarize with method of ultraviolet and visible light spectroscopy; to investigate optical characteristics of thin semiconductor films.

  1. Electrical measurements of resistance of semiconductors and conductors

Objective: to familiarize with mechanisms of electrical conductivity of semiconductors and conductors; to perform and analyse temperature influence on resistance of semiconductors and metals; to evaluate forbidden gap width of semiconductor.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX/EDS)

Objective: to familiarize with methods of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry; to perform SEM measurements employing different modes and learn to analyse obtained images; to perform EDX measurements and learn to evaluate the composition of investigated sample.

  1. Measurements of ionic conductivity of ceramic materials employing impedance spectroscopy method

Objective: to familiarize with mechanisms of ionic conduction in ceramic materials; to perform measurements of ionic conduction dependence on temperature for these materials; to estimate activation energy of ionic conduction.

  1. X-ray fluorescence analysis

Objective: to familiarize with methodology of X-ray fluorescence analysis; to estimate unknown elements in investigated sample (qualitative analysis) and relative concentration of every element in the sample (quantitative analysis).

  1. Quantitative evaluation of the surface free energy of solid state materials

Objective: to evaluate the critical surface tension of the surface of solid state body using contact angle goniometer and four different liquids; to evaluate surface free energy using Owens and Wendt graphs.

  1. Formation of thin film structure topology using contact photolithography

Objective: to form and characterize a single layer topology on a Si substrate using contact photolithography.

  1. Surface characterization using atomic force microscope

Objective: to learn to characterize the surface of a sample using atomic force microscope (AFM); to quantitatively evaluate surface morphology and other properties of the sample.

  1. Conductometric analysis

Objective: to learn to find and evaluate the conductivity of various material solutions; to familiarize with the means and techniques for measurement of specific electric conductivity.

  1. Investigation of polarising laser attenuator

Objective: to familiarize with the tendencies of polarized optics and its capabilities to use polarizing elements for the control of the intensity of a laser beam.

  1. Measurement of the Brewster angle using white polarized light

Objective: to measure the Brewster angle of dielectric materials of different refractive indexes using a randomly chosen wavelength within the visible spectrum and a motorized setup for white polarized light measurements.

  1. Micro-machining of materials using femtosecond laser pulses

Objective: to determine the threshold of laser effect for materials; to micro-machine surfaces using femtosecond laser “Pharos” and setup for microfabrication “FemtoLAB”.

  1. Pump-probe spectroscopy

Objective: to investigate material absorption kinetics using pump-probe spectrometer “Harpia” and femtosecond laser “Pharos”.

  1. Formation of ceramic layers using plasma spray method

Objective: to familiarize with the method of the plasma spray in vacuum; to fabricate a ceramic layer.

 

2015

Andrius Vasiliauskas, doctoral dissertation „Diamond like carbon films and their nanocomposites: deposition and investigation of the piezoresistive properties” (Technological sciences), supervisor dr. Šarūnas Meškinis.

2014

Algirdas Lazauskas, doctoral dissertation „Surface morphology, cohesive and adhesive properties of physical vapor deposited chromium and chromium composite thin films” (Technological sciences), supervisor dr. Viktoras Grigaliūnas.

2012

Asta Tamulevičienė, doctoral dissertation „Amorphous carbon based nanocomposites for optical applications” (Technological sciences), supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

Tomas Tamulevičius, doctoral dissertation „Periodic micro structures for refractive index sensors and diffractive optical elements” (Physical sciences), supervisor dr. Mindaugas Andrulevičius.

Gailius Vanagas, doctoral dissertation „Influence of structural materials properties on functional parameters of microelectromechanical systems” (Technological sciences), supervisor dr. Viktoras Grigaliūnas.

Eitvydas Gruzdys, doctoral dissertation „Synthesis and analysis of protective coatings produced by thermal spray” (Physical sciences), supervisor dr. Šarūnas Meškinis.

2011

Marius Mikolajūnas, doctoral dissertation „Formation and investigation of silicon nitride films for membrane applications” (Technological sciences), scientific supervisor dr. Viktoras Grigaliūnas.

2009

Tomas Grinys, doctoral dissertation „Vacuum plasma spray deposition of YSZ-NiO-Ni ceramic coatings” (Physical sciences), scientific supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

Audrius Giedraitis, doctoral dissertation „Kinetics of growth, sorption properties and applications of evaporable barium getter films“ (Technological sciences), scientific supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

Rimantas Gudaitis, doctoral dissertation „The investigation of electrical and optical properties of the ion beam synthesized diamond like carbon films” (Technological sciences), scientific supervisor dr. Šarūnas Meškinis.

2008

Renata Jarimavičiūtė-Žvalionienė, doctoral dissertation „Formation of optical silicon structures by electrochemical etching method“ (Technological sciences), scientific supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

Brigita Abakevičienė, doctoral dissertation „Processes of deposition and testing of mechanical properties of polymers and metal coated polymers“ (Physical sciences), scientific supervisor  prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius

2005

Asta Guobienė, doctoral dissertation „Fabrication and investigation of periodical structures in polymers” (Physical sciences), scientific supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

2004

Rita Kriūkienė, doctoral dissertation „Effect of temperature and chemical environment conditions on microstructure and metrological characteristics of thermocouple alloys” (Technological sciences), supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

Judita Puišo, doctoral dissertation „Growth kinetics and properties of lead sulfide thin films deposited on crystalline silicon using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method“ (Physical sciences), supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

2001

Rytis Dargis, doctoral dissertation „Investigation of parameters of plasma spray in low vacuum on fabricated Ni-Al films electrophysical characteristics” (Technological sciences), supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

Arnoldas Užupis, doctoral dissertation „Thermal modification of indium oxide and tin alloy films, fabricated by magnetron sputtering” (Physical sciences) supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

1993

Kazys Babilius, doctoral dissertation „The tribological properties of titanium nitride, fabricated using arc discharge” (Technological sciences), supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

1990

Juozas Budinavičius, doctoral dissertation „Processes in metal and silicon system thin films technology using deposition and simultaneous high energy ion irradiation” (Technological sciences), supervisor prof. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius

Awards

  • Dr. Tomas Tamulevičius was awarded a 2013-2014 scholarship from Lithuania Academy of Sciences for young researchers in physical, biomedical, technology and agriculture scientific areas.
  • Dr. Algirdas Lazauskas was awarded a 2015-2016 scholarship from Lithuania Academy of Sciences for young researchers in physical, biomedical, technology and agriculture scientific areas.
  • PhD student Jolita Sakaliūnienė was awarded a special KTU prize for the most innovative piece of research in an exhibition „Technorama 2015“ (title: „Towards solid oxide fuel cell microelements“).
  • Together with „Precizika Metrology 2011-2013 a joint MITA high technology development program project was carried out: „Nanostructural diamond-like carbon films for advanced optical metrology components” (NanoDLC) (leader S. Tamulevičius, valued at 73,000 €). Results of the project were used within the company to create scales for precision laser measurement systems. This product was awarded gold medal in national contest „Product of Lithuania 2015“.

Established scientific authority of Institute experts at the University, in the country and abroad

UAB „Holtida“ waestablished in 2014 as a spin-off company.

Received production license of secure documents and secure document forms.

Submitted patent application No. 2015 051. Invention title: JOINT HOLOGRAM 

  •   
  • HOLTIDA director
    Erika Rajackaitė

Excursions

2015 January – March pupils had 41 excursions!

Other excursions:

  • Lund university delegation, October 7, 2015
  • Trainees from Kazachstan, November 16, 2015
  • „Researchers’ night“ event, September 25, 2015
  • KTU Business council visit, September 29, 2015
  • Meeting with Lithuanian Airports delegation, September 22 d., 2015
  • United Kingdom „Toye & Co“ company delegation, September 8, 2015
  • Center of criminal investigation delegation, September 9, 2015
  • JSC „Start Vilnius“ executive Marius Baranauskas and Vilnius mayor counsellor Agnė Selemonaitė, July 15, 2015
  • Officers delegation, June 17, 2015
  • Delegation from Kazachstan, May 27, 2015
  • Ambassador of the Netherlands, May 26, 2015
  • Journalists from Japan, May 6, 2015
  • Europe institute students, May 12, 2015
  • JCC „Precizika Metrology“ delegation, April 29, 2015
  • Forum „Collaboration between business and science”, April 2, 2015
  • KTU council, April 2, 2015
  • KTU council meeting with KTU scientists, March 26, 2015
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs and MITA meeting with embassies economy attaché, March 17, 2015
  • Physics teachers visit, March 3, 2015
  • German company and „Invest Lithuania” specialists visit, February 25, 2015

LABORATORY

 

  •   Research Laboratory of Surfaces and Thin Films 
  •    Nano- and Microlithography Research Laboratory
  •    Research Laboratory of Vacuum and Plasma Processes
  •    Research Laboratory of Development and Implementation

STAFF

Administration

Head of Project  Management and Development 
Fataraitė-Urbonienė Eglė

Administrator
Sinkevičienė Virginija

 Research Laboratory of Surfaces and Thin Films

Head of Laboratory,

Senior researcher, assoc. prof, dr. Mindaugas Andrulevičius

Senior researcher,
dr. Igoris Prosyčevas
Researcher,
dr. Tomas Tamulevičius
 

Associate researcher,
Mindaugas Pucėta

Associate researcher,
dr. Peckus Domantas
Technician,
Irina Abelit

Nano- and Microlithography Research Laboratory

Head of Laboratory,

Senior researcher, dr. Viktoras Grigaliūnas

Senior researcher,
dr. Dalius Jucius
Senior researcher,
assoc. prof.  dr. Asta Guobienė
Associate researcher,
Angelė Gudonytė

Research Laboratory of Vacuum and Plasma Processes

Head of Laboratory,

Chief Researcher, dr. Šarūnas Meškinis

Senior researcher
dr. Kęstutis Šlapikas
 

Associate researcher,
Vitoldas Kopustinskas

Researcher,
dr. Rimantas Gudaitis
Researcher,
dr. Asta Tamulevičienė
Associate researcher,
dr Andrius Vasiliauskas
Associate researcher,
dr Algirdas Lazauskas

Research Laboratory of Development and Implementation

Head of Laboratory,

Researcher, dr. Pranas Narmontas

Dipl. engineer,
Algimantas Juraitis

Dipl. engineer,
Vladimiras Čižas
Technician,
Vilija Kuprėnienė

 

PhD students

Čiegis Arvydas
 

Virganavičius Dainius

Sakaliūnienė Jolita
 

Juknius Tadas

Jurkevičiūtė Aušrinė
Juodėnas Mindaugas

Erika Rajackaitė

Students

Šimatonis Linas
Stankevičius Lukas

Director – prof. hab. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius

tel. 8 (37) 327 601
e. p. sigitas.tamulevicius@ktu.lt

Research

Publications

2016   I   2015   I   2014   I   2013   I   2012   I   2011   I    2010   I   1991 - 2010

 

National projects

2016 m.

  • KTU MTEPI funded project „Calibration of 3D acoustic microscope visualization employing buried lithographic microstructures” (3DSonic) (2016) 

    Progress in interdisciplinary branches of science is inseparable from miniaturization and increasing complexity of the devices and their constituent elements. Verification of these complex, multi-material elements quality, such as: integrated circuits, micro-devices, requires development of new non-destructive testing methods. Scanning acoustic microscopy is a very promising method for this particular task where in high-frequency focused ultrasound waves are used for imaging. This method enables investigation of the hidden structures (e.g. lithographically produced contacts, microfluidic device channels networks) but acoustic signal interpretation remains a complex problem. During this project a complex, sample with three-dimensional internal structure pattern was modelled develop and produce, i.e. 3D acoustic calibration block. Different lithography techniques were applied, including ultrashort laser ablation and ultrashort pulse laser modification with subsequent selective chemical etching). Professor K. Baršausko Ultrasound Research Institute has developed an acoustic model and performed simulations of a new required geometry complex three-dimensional objects, they also selected respective material combinations for sample realization. Samples were realized employing newly mastered lithography technologies. Methods for visualization of such complex 3D structures were developed and relating the experimental results with the acoustic field modelling results imaging of the hidden structurers were performed. Developed imaging method was applied for non-destructive testing visualization and characterization of the microfluidic channel geometry and quality.

  • KTU MTEPI funded project „Adaptation of novel diffusion-driven organic field-effect transistors for studying of the charge transporting properties of ambipolar semiconductors” (DOFET) (2016) 

    Determination of electrical characteristics of organic semiconductors in real device configuration was performed. During project implementation organic field effect transistor (OFET) structures were designed and constructed. Optimization of the OFET configuration: distance between contacts, contact position in respect with organic semiconductor (top or bottom contact) was performed and mobility of the carriers in the range 10-6–10-2 cm2/Vs was determined. Transmission line measurements of the same structures (without applying gate voltage) were performed and specific resistivity as well as layer resistance were determined.

  • KTU MTEPI funded project „UV-NIL technology for the fabrication of microlenses on flexible polymeric substrates (NILens)“ (2016) 

    The aim of this project was fabrication of microlens arrays on flexible fluoropolymer substrates by UV-NIL technique.

  • Bilateral Lithuania-France program Gilibert project “Regular metal oxide nanotubes arrays for gas sensing (Gaz-Sens, S-LZ-17-2)” financed by Research Council of Lithuania is carried out together with scientists form University of Nantes, Institute of Materials - Jean Rouxel (France).  

Aim of this project is to create nanotube based sensors for detection of toxic gasses. Nanostructures will be patterned in thin metal films employing holographic lithography. Nanotubes will be formed by an oxidation of lithographically formed nanostructures. Patterns will be investigated at KTU MMI and the sensors will be evaluated at the partner laboratories.

2015 m.

  • The research team project funded by Research Council of Lithuania „Nanolithography for ultraviolet optics” (UVDIODE) (2015-2017)

    The aim of the project is creation of a manufacturing technology of polymer micro lenses array for InAlGaN UV LEDs in order to enhance the spatial resolution and the beam power density. Advanced nanolithography techniques (3D e-beam nanolithography, thermal reflow and deep RIE) are used to create a 3D fused silica mold of micro lenses. A 3D mold is used for the cheap replication of micro lenses in the UV transparent fluoropolymers using the UV nanoimprint lithography technique. The resistance of micro lenses to environmental conditions, UV light as well as to mechanical impact is going to be investigated.

    Publications:

    • Grigaliūnas, Viktoras; Jucius, Dalius; Lazauskas, Algirdas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Sakaliūnienė, Jolita; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Smetona, Saulius; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Effects of 3D microlens transfer into fused silica substrate by CF4/O2 dry etching // Applied surface science. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISSN 0169-4332. 2017, vol. 393, p. 287-293. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Current Contents (Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences); Current Contents (Engineering, Computing & Technology); Science Direct]. [IF: 3,150, AIF: 3,592 (E, 2015)].
    • Grigaliūnas, Viktoras; Lazauskas, Algirdas; Jucius, Dalius; Viržonis, Darius; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Smetona, Saulius; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Microlens fabrication by 3D electron beam lithography combined with thermal reflow technique // Microelectronic engineering. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISSN 0167-9317. 2016, vol. 164, p. 23-29. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Science Direct; Compendex; Inspec; Chemical Abstracts (CAplus); Academic Search Alumni Edition; Academic Search Complete; Academic Search Elite; Academic Search Premier; Academic Search Research & Development; Ingenta Connect]. [IF: 1,277, AIF: 3,220 (E, 2015)].
    • Jucius, Dalius; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Grigaliūnas, Viktoras; Guobienė, Asta; Lazauskas, Algirdas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas. Highly hydrophilic poly(ethylene terephthalate) films prepared by combined hot embossing and plasma treatment techniques // Applied surface science. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISSN 0169-4332. 2015, vol. 349, p. 200-210. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Science Direct]. [IF: 3,150, AIF: 3,592 (E, 2015)].
2014 m.
  • KTU MTEPI funded by Kaunas University of Technology and Lithuanian University of Health Sciences joint researcher group project „Application of nanocomposite layers for innovative antimicrobial layers and optical biosensors” (NANOBIOSENSOR) (2014)
    Real time monitoring of optical constants, physical, chemical and biological processes and reaction kinetics was developed. Antimicrobial properties of diamond like carbon/Ag nanocomposite layers with controllable plasmonic properties were investigated. Sub-micrometre period ordered structures were also formed on these layers for in-situ measurement of complex refractive index kinetics. A prototype (biosensor) for complex refractive index kinetics measurements was assembled and calibrated for investigation of biological medium and processes in real time. Also, plasma deposition method was employed to deposit and investigate DLC:Ag nanocomposite layers with antimicrobial properties. After performing microbiology tests, the antimicrobial efficiency of DLC:Ag nanocomposite layers for natural bacteria and their effect for in-situ measurements was evaluated.
2013 m.
  • Extraordinary piezoresistance diamond like carbon nanocomposites and micro-(nano-) structures”, Researcher team project of Research Council of Lithuania (2013-2015) (PJEZODEIMA) 

    The aim of this study is deposition, investigation and application for strain gages of the large GF and zero TCR DLC and DLC nanocomposite films. Research on GF and TCR of ta-C films as well as ta-C and metal nanocomposites grown by novel deposition method – high power pulse magnetron sputtering - was planned. The influence of the sp3/sp2 C bond ratio, hydrogen, dimensions of the clusters, metal type was investigated. In addition, principles of the extraordinary piezoresistance metamaterial as well as geometric effects were applied for further increase of GF.

    Publications:

    • Meškinis, Šarūnas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Niaura, Gediminas; Juškėnas, Remigijus; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Structure of the silver containing diamond like carbon films: Study by multiwavelength Raman spectroscopy and XRD // Diamond and related materials. Lausanne: Elsevier Science. ISSN 0925-9635. 2013, vol. 40, p. 32-37. [IF (SCIE): 1,572 (2013)].

    •  Meškinis, Šarūnas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Niaura, Gediminas; Kondrotas, Rokas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Bias effects on structure and piezoresistive properties of DLC: Ag thin films // Surface & coatings technology. Lausanne: Elsevier Science. ISSN 0257-8972. 2014, Vol. 255, p. 84-89. [IF (SCIE): 1,998 (2014)].

    • Meškinis, Šarūnas; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Čiegis, Arvydas; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Piezoresistive properties of diamond like carbon films containing copper // Diamond and related materials. Lausanne: Elsevier Science. ISSN 0925-9635. 2015, vol. 60, p. 20-25. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Academic Search Premier; Chemical Abstracts (CAplus); Compendex; Inspec; Science Direct]. [IF (SCIE): 1,919 (2014)].

  • Fundamental investigation of surface relief and molecular forces influence on the self-organization of nanoparticles and nanofibers” (PARMO). ESFA (No. VP1-3.1-ŠMM-10-V-02-028) (2013-2015).

    The equipment and method for capillary assisted deposition of nanosized objects on templates was designed, templates for deposition of nanosized objects were formed.

    Publications:

    • Tamulevičienė, Asta; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Niaura, Gediminas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Multiwavelength Raman analysis of SiOx and N containing amorphous diamond like carbon films // Thin solid films. Lausanne: Elsevier. ISSN 0040-6090. 2015, vol. 581, p. 86-91. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Science Direct]. [IF (SCIE): 1,759 (2014)].

    • Lazauskas, Algirdas; Baltrušaitis, Jonas; Grigaliūnas, Viktoras; Guobienė, Asta; Prosyčevas, Igoris; Narmontas, Pranas; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Thermally-driven structural changes of graphene oxide multilayer films deposited on glass substrate // Superlattices and microstructures. London: Academic Press-Elsevier Science. ISSN 0749-6036. 2014, Vol. 75, p. 461-467. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Chemical Abstracts (CAplus); Compendex; Inspec; Science Direct]. [IF (SCIE): 2,097 (2014)].

    • Virganavičius, Dainius; Šimatonis, Linas; Jurkevičiūtė, Aušrinė; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas // Formation of sub-wavelength pitch regular structures employing a motorized multiple exposure Lloyd's mirror holographic lithography setup // Proc. SPIE 9170, Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices XI, 91701I (August 28, 2014); doi:10.1117/12.2061191

  • Creation of biological cardiostimulator involving foreign country scientists and scientific institutions” (BIOKARDIOSTIM). ESFA (No. VP1-3.1-ŠMM-10-V-02-029) (2013-2015).

    The project was carried out with partners from Lithuanian University of Health Sciences and The Centre for Innovative Medicine. The review about biocompatible materials in which microscaffolds devoted for stopping stem cell migration from heart can be formed employing laser microfabrication and laser microfabrication experiments were performed.

    Publications:

    • Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šimatonis, Linas; Ulčinas, Orestas; Gadeikytė, Aušra; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Antanavičiūtė, Ieva; Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Skeberdis, Vytenis Arvydas; Stankevičius, Edgaras. Femtosecond laser micro machined polyimide films for cell scaffold // Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (2016) (submitted)

    • Adomavičiūtė, Erika; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šimatonis, Linas; Fataraitė-Urbonienė, Eglė; Stankevičius, Edgaras; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Microstructuring of Electrospun Mats Employing Femtosecond Laser // Materials Science (Medžiagotyra) 2015, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 44 – 51. (http://www.matsc.ktu.lt/index.php/MatSc/article/view/10249)

    •  Tamulevičius, Tomas; Gadeikytė, Aušra; Augulis, Liudvikas; Tamulevičienė, Asta; Fataraitė, Eglė; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Microstructuring and mechanical testing of biocompatible polymers for biological applications // Radiation interaction with materials: fundamentals and applications 2014: 5th International conference, Kaunas, Lithuania, May 12-15, 2014: program and materials / Kaunas University of Technology, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Riga Technical University, Hydrogen Energy Association. Kaunas: Technologija. ISSN 2351-583X. 2014, p. 187-189.

    • Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Antanavičiūtė, Ieva; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Stankevičius, Edgaras. Application of polyimide films for cell scaffold in tissue engineering // Acta Physiologica: Special Issue: Abstracts from the Joint Meeting of the Federation of European Physiological Societies and the Baltic Physiological Societies: Kaunas, Lithuania, 26-29 August 2015: abstracts / Federation of European Physiological Societies. Lithuanian Physiological Society [et al.]. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell. ISSN 1748-1716. 2015, Vol. 215, suppl. SI705, p. 137. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science)].

  • Regular 3D Structures for Optical Sensors”, Researcher team project of Research Council of Lithuania (3Dsens) (2013-2015 m.).

    The project aims at the development of new flexible and high throughput two and three dimensional periodic submicron and nanometre range structure formation method based on application of feasible materials and new automated holographic lithography optical scheme. The fabricated regular structures will be applied for the development of novel optical refractive index sensors relevant for monitoring of the chemical or biological processes taking part in liquids.

    Publications:

    • Yaremchuk, Iryna; Tamulevičienė, Asta; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Balevičius, Zigmas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Modeling of the plasmonic properties of DLC-Ag nanocomposite films // Physica status solidi A: Applications and materials science. Weinheim: Wiley. ISSN 1862-6300. 2014, Vol. 211, no. 2, p. 329-335. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science)]. [IF (SCIE): 1,616 (2014)].

    • Yaremchuk, Iryna; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Fitio, Volodymyr; Gražulevičiūtė, Ieva; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Numerical implementation of the S-matrix algorithm for modeling of relief diffraction gratings // Journal of modern optics. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis. ISSN 0950-0340. 2013, vol. 60, iss. 20, p. 1781-1788. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science)]. [IF (SCIE): 1,166 (2013)].

    •  Tamulevičius, Tomas; Gražulevičiūtė, Ieva; Urbonas, Darius; Gabalis, Martynas; Petruškevičius, Raimondas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Numerical and experimental analysis of optical response of sub-wavelength period structure in carbonaceous film for refractive index sensing // Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 22, pp. 27462-27475 (2014) [IF (E): 3,525 (2013)]

  • Plasmonic nanostructures for solar cells with decreased spectrum losses”, Global grant project funded by Research Council of Lithuania (NIRSOLIS) (2013-2015 m.).

    The structure, composition and optical properties of DLC:Cu and DLC:Ag films were investigated. Photovoltaic properties of DLC:Cu and DLC:Ag heterostructures were studied. UV irradiation effects on optical properties of DLC:Ag films were investigated.

    Publications:

    • Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Tamulevičienė, Asta; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Optical properties of diamond like carbon films containing copper, grown by high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering: structure and composition effects // Thin solid films. Lausanne: Elsevier. ISSN 0040-6090. 2015, vol. 581, p. 48-53. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Science Direct]. [IF (SCIE): 1,759 (2014)].

    • Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Tamulevičienė, Asta; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Juškėnas, Remigijus; Niaura, Gediminas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Plasmonic properties of silver nanoparticles embedded in diamond like carbon films: Influence of structure and composition // Applied surface science. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISSN 0169-4332. 2014, Vol. 317, p. 1041-1046. [Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science); Science Direct]. [IF (SCIE): 2,711 (2014)])

    • Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Niaura, Gediminas; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Ulčinas, Orestas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Surface enhanced Raman scattering effect in diamond like carbon films containing Ag nanoparticles // Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (accepted 2015 11 10)

2012 m.
  • Creation of new semiconductor materials and nanostructures for advanced technologies”. Project within the frame of the measure VP1-3.1-ŠMM-08 K of the Human Resource Development Programme of Lithuania 2007-2013 (Project No VP1-3.1-ŠMM-08-K-01-013). (2012-2015) 

    The project was carried out together with Department of Physics, Department of Organic Technology and Research Centre for Microsystems and Nanotechnology of Kaunas University of Technology.

    The aim of this project is to improve qualification and competences of researchers by creating materials with unique optical and electrical properties, suitable for application in semiconductor industry as well as in advanced optical and measurement devices. The main goal is to deepen knowledge of scientists and researchers of Kaunas University of Technology by carrying out research in the field of lasers, nanotechnologies and electronics, and to strengthen hi-tech sector of Lithuanian economy by spreading an experience among the students and employees of interested companies.

    Publications:

    • Tamulevičius, Tomas; Gražulevičiūtė, Ieva; Jurkevičiūtė, Aušrinė; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. The calculation, fabrication and verification of diffraction grating based on laser beam splitters employing a white light scatterometry technique // Optics and lasers in engineering. Oxford: Elsevier. ISSN 0143-8166. 2013, vol. 51, iss, p. 1185-1191. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Academic Search Premier; Compendex; Inspec; Science Direct]. [IF (SCIE): 1,695 (2013)]

    • Jucius, Dalius; Grybas, Ignas; Grigaliūnas, Viktoras; Mikolajūnas, Marius; Lazauskas, Algirdas. UV imprint fabrication of polymeric scales for optical rotary encoders // Optics and laser technology. Oxford: Elsevier. ISSN 0030-3992. 2014, vol. 56, p. 107-113. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science)]. [IF (SCIE): 1,647 (2014)].

    • Lazauskas, Algirdas; Guobienė, Asta; Prosyčevas, Igoris; Baltrušaitis, Valentinas; Grigaliūnas, Viktoras; Narmontas, Pranas; Baltrušaitis, Jonas. Water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic SiO2 nanocomposite films during icing/deicing cycles // Materials Characterization. New York: Elsevier. ISSN 1044-5803. 2013, Vol. 82, p. 9-16.

  • Technological processes of membranes production for solid oxide fuel microcells”. Project of the National science programme of Research Council of Lithuania (MIKROKOKE-2) (2012-2014) m.

    Deep reactive ion etching technology was arranged to make the etching experiments. Initial membrane structures in silicon were formed using inductively coupled plasma technique. Solid state reaction method was also applied for the preparation of YSZ and GDC composites with yttria and ceria. Broadband spectrometer to measure membrane structures at high temperatures (frequency range from 1 Hz to 1 GHz) and experimental stands for direct laser recording and interference laser ablation were designed. The limits of light energy range for GDC coating densification were determined.

    Publications:

    • Sakaliūnienė, Jolita; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Influence of magnetron sputtering deposition conditions and thermal treatment on properties of platinum thin films for positive electrode–electrolyte–negative electrode structure // Thin solid films. Lausanne: Elsevier. ISSN 0040-6090. 2015, Vol. 594, Part A, p. 101-108. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Science Direct]. [IF: 1,759; AIF: 3,240; IF/AIF: 0,543; Q2; 2014 Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2016)].

    • Žarkov, Aleksej; Stanulis, Andrius; Sakaliūnienė, Jolita; Butkutė, Skirmantė; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Šalkus, Tomas; Tautkus, Stasys; Orliukas, Antanas Feliksas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Kareiva, Aivaras. On the synthesis of yttria-stabilized zirconia: a comparative study // Journal of sol-gel science and technology. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. ISSN 0928-0707. 2015, vol. 76, iss. 2, p. 309-319. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); SpringerLINK]. [IF: 1,532; AIF: 1,793; IF/AIF: 0,854; Q2; 2014 Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2016)].

    • Abakevičienė, Brigita; Žalga, Artūras; Tautkus, Stasys; Pilipavičius, Jurgis; Navickas, Edvinas; Kareiva, Aivaras; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Synthesis of YSZ thin films by the novel aqueous sol–gel citrate-precursor method // Solid State Ionics. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISSN 0167-2738. 2012, Vol. 225, iss. 1, p. 73-76. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); COMPENDEX; INSPEC; Science Direct]. [IF: 2,046; AIF: 3,634; IF/AIF: 0,563; Q2; 2012 Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2016)].

2011 m.
  • Project of High technologies development programme of Agency for Science, Innovation and Technology „Nanostructured diamond-like carbon films for advanced optical metrology components” (NanoDLC) (2011-2013)

    The project was carried out together with JSC „Precizika Metrology“.

    The project aimed at the development of the new advanced optical metrological components with prolonged lifetime using diamond like carbon based protective films. During the project, development and implementation of the novel technology of radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, direct ion beam deposition of nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC) films for production of the advanced photomasks, glass scales and reticles took place. The research included investigation of impact of various float glass and Cr film surface preparation methods on DLC film adhesion to the substrate; influence of DLC film synthesis parameters on their mechanical and optical properties; influence of DLC film chemical composition on their adhesion to the glass and Cr substrate; developing of wear resistant DLC film suitable to protect the scale gratings, photomasks and reticles; analysis of critical parameters of DLC film protected scale gratings, photomasks and reticles (pattern fidelity, edge roughness, edge defects, isolated defects, corner rounding, light transmission). It was expected that improvement of optical metrology components using diamond-like carbon films to protect them against aging will bring new quality and considerable enlargement of market share of the industrial partner.

    Publications:

    • Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Tamulevičienė, Asta; Niaura, Gediminas. Piezoresistive properties of amorphous carbon based nanocomposite thin films deposited by plasma assisted methods // Thin solid films. Lausanne: Elsevier Science. ISSN 0040-6090. 2013, vol. 538, p. 78-84. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Science Direct]. [IF (SCIE): 1,867 (2013)].

    • Lazauskas, Algirdas; Grigaliūnas, Viktoras; Guobienė, Asta; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Baltrušaitis, Jonas. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy evaluation of adhesion and nanostructure of thin Cr // Thin Solid Films. Lausanne : Elsevier Science. ISSN 0040-6090. 2012, Vol. 520, iss. 19, p. 6328-6333.

    • Lazauskas, Algirdas; Grigaliūnas, Viktoras; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Ecarla, Fanny; Baltrušaitis, Jonas. Surface morphology, cohesive and adhesive properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon nanocomposite films // Applied Surface Science. Amsterdam : Elsevier. ISSN 0169-4332. 2013, Vol. 276, p. 543-549.

2010 m.
  • Development of new structures and methods for optical sensors” (GLRS), Project MIP-80/2010 funded by Research Council of Lithuania (2010-2011)

    The prototype of automated spectroscopic setup was developed and sub-wavelength periodical structures possessing highest sensitivity were fabricated and investigated. Applying UV contact lithography, laser beam interference lithography and thin film deposition technologies including metallic film deposition, amorphous diamond like carbon deposition different period and micro-relief diffraction gratings were fabricated. Properties of the fabricated structures were investigated.

    Publications:

    • Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šeperys, Rimas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Total internal reflection based sub-wavelength grating sensor for the determination of refractive index of liquids // Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V. ISSN 1569-4410. 2011, Vol. 9, iss. 2, p. 140-148. [ISI Web of Science]. [IF (SCIE): 1,681 (2011)].

    • Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šeperys, Rimas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Refractive index sensor based on the diamond like carbon diffraction grating // Thin Solid Films. Lausanne: Elsevier Science. ISSN 0040-6090. 2011, Vol. 519, iss. 12, p. 4082-4086. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Science Direct]. [IF (SCIE): 1,890 (2011)].

    • Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šeperys, Rimas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Daugelavičius, Rimantas. Application of holographic sub-wavelength diffraction gratings for monitoring of kinetics of bioprocesses // Applied Surface Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISSN 0169-4332. 2012, Vol. 258, iss. 23, p. 9292-9296. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); COMPENDEX; INSPEC; Science Direct]. [IF (SCIE): 2,112 (2012)].

  • Micro and nanostructures for solid oxide fuel microcells”. Project of the National science programme of Research Council of Lithuania (2010-2011) 

    The project was carried out together with VU, FTMC.

    New sol-gel methods for the preparation of yttria stabilized zirconia ceramics (YSZ) on different substrates using dip-coating technique have been developed. Formation of positive electrode–electrolyte–negative electrode (PEN) membrane of micro-solid oxide fuel cell (µ-SOFC) after deep silicon etching in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) aqueous solution using an etch-stop layer of SiO2 has been selected in this work. Hard, porous, electrical conductive Ni-NiO-YSZ ceramic composite coatings were formed by vacuum plasma spray method. The nickel thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation were laser drilled to form the micro-holes for the fuel cell membranes.

    Publications:

    • Maciulevičius, Mindaugas; Voisiat, Bogdan; Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Račiukaitis, Gediminas. Evaluation of laser drilling of Ni film on silicon for solid oxide fuel cells // Journal of laser micro nanoengineering. Osaka: Japan Laser Processing Society. ISSN 1880-0688. 2011, Vol. 6, no. 3, p. 199-203. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); Compendex]. [IF: 0,556; AIF: 3,200; IF/AIF: 0,174; Q4; 2011 Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2016)].]

    • Sakaliūnienė, Jolita; Čyvienė, Jurgita; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Dudonis, Julius. Investigation of structural and optical properties of GDC thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering // Acta Physica Polonica A. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences. ISSN 0587-4246. 2011, Vol. 120, no. 1, p. 63-65. [Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science); COMPENDEX]. [IF: 0,444; AIF: 2,680; IF/AIF: 0,166; Q4; 2011 Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition (Thomson Reuters, 2016)].

    • Maciulevičius, Mindaugas; Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Račiukaitis, Gediminas. Evaluation of laser drilling of Ni film on silicon for solid oxide fuel cells // Physics Procedia. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISSN 1875-3892. 2011, vol. 12, Part B, p. 317-322. [Conference Proceedings Citation Index; Science Direct].

  • EU structural fund funded projects of joint lasers, new materials, electronics and nanotechnology as well as applied science and technology national complex program (NKP): „The development of materials science, nano- and light technology as well as higher education infrastructure in these areas” (LaMeTech infrastruktūra) (No. VP2‐1.1‐ŠMM‐04‐V‐02‐002) and „I and II study circle modernization in areas of materials science, nano- and light technology” (LaMeTech studijos) (No. VP1‐2.2‐ŠMM‐09‐V‐01‐005) (2010‐2015)

    The projects were carried out together with partners from VU, VGTU, FTMC.

    New analytical and technological equipment was purchased, which was used for scientific research staff and students (additional student practices were performed), study programs were renewed.

2008 m.
  • Project of High technologies development programme „Peculiarities of nanostructures formation in cement building materials: investigation and technological development” (nano-CSM) (2008-2010)

    The project was carried together with Institute of Thermoisolation of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuanian Institute of Energetics, Center of building materials and constructions of Kaunas university of technology, Institute for Hi-Tech Development, JSC „STATIZOLA”, JSC ,,Betoneta“.

    The project was based on the creation new cement building materials (binding materials, grout, maintenance compositions, concrete), which properties depend on the nanostructured derivatives formed in the bulk of it. The aim of research was to investigate mechanism of nanoderivatives formation in multicomponent composition, to find out relation between material structure and final properties of composition and possibilities to modify them in the required manner. The influence of various nanomodifiers such as zeolite, colloid solution of natrium silicate, micro fibre, obtained in the plasma chemical reactor on the mechanism of the nanoderivatives formation and its properties were investigated and the recommendations for multi component materials producers were presented.

  • Project of High technologies development programme „Development and application of advanced holographic security means” (HOLOKID) (2008-2010)

    The project was carried out together with Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Physics, JSC „Lodvila”.

    The aim of this project was to develop new holographic technologies and to perform a search for new materials and structures potentially applicable for security means.

    During the first year of the project, influence of initial layer on mechanical properties of electrolyticaly on Si surface microrelief deposited Ni layer and parameters of microrelief replication during printed master matrix production was investigated. Technology for holographic image formation by microdiffractive elements from two dimensional images were created and optimised. Processes of kinegram and microdiffractive elements hologram production were coupled. Methodology for evaluation of hologram diffraction efficiency using radiation of various wavelengths was created. With the aim of high diffraction efficiency, process of original hologram writing, used for the production of 3D rainbow hologram, was optimised. Experiments of the computer based hologram design were carried out by a fully vectorised 3D Beam Propagation Method. Parameters of the electron beam lithography were optimised for realisation of the holograms synthesized. In the frame of search for new materials for electronic ID tags, synthesis and investigation of low molecular mass p type organic semiconductors with a high mobility of charge carriers was performed as well as experiments on production and investigation of organic field effect transistors were carried out.

    During the second year of the project, the influence of replication process on quality of microrelief replicated on high area was investigated and quantitatively described; the principles of new technology combining optical replication and dot matrix holography were developed; the 3D hologram recording process was optimized taking in account thermal deformation of holographic plate; computer simulations of 2D images constructed of point sources and plane objects were performed employing fast Fourier transformations and fully vectorised 3D Beam Propagation Method; new electro active low molecular masses hole and electron transporting semiconductor layers were produced and characterized; new hole and electron transporting conjugated polymers and oligomers were synthesized and characterized; charge transfer phenomena at the interface of electrode and organic semiconductor were analysed to produce organic semiconductor based Shottky diode.

    During the third year of the project, dependence of optical properties of diffractive optical elements on technological regimes of recombining was defined, quality of thermal replica of microstructure was improved by high frequency vibrations, 2D/3D hologram production technologies on the basis of laser interference lithography and coupling of 2D/3D holograms with micro diffractive elements were created and adopted for the mass production of optically variable devices, measurement of diffraction efficiency and image signal to noise ratio was proposed as mean of qualitative evaluation of 2D/3D holograms, new, faster and more accurate fully vectorised 3D BPM RK4 algorithm based on the 4th order Runge-Kuta method was used for the design of synthetic computer holograms, holograms of 2 and 256 greyscale levels were realized in the thick PMMA layer by e-beam lithography, three new, thermally stable, amorphous organic materials, potentially suitable for active layers of organic FETs and light-emitting diodes, were synthesised, current-voltage characteristics for various configurations of organic FETs were investigated.

  • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation „Photonic Crystal Micro-Resonators” (2008)

    The project was carried out together with Polytechnic University of Catalonia and Vilnius University.

    The final goal of the project was to fabricate and to explore theoretically and experimentally such photonic crystal resonators, as well as to estimate their application for all-optical information processing. The subject of the project was sub-millimetre and micrometre length resonators filled by photonic crystals. Photonic crystals, due to their celebrated dispersion and diffraction properties, and due to their promising applications, have been intensively studied. In the applied project we have investigated a kind of hybrid system, the system combining the properties of the resonators (with the mode structures) and the properties of photonic crystals (complicated dispersion relation). The investigations of such system have been initiated in 2007, in collaboration between the Laser Research Center of Vilnius University, the Institute of Physical Electronics of Kaunas University of Technology, and the Politechnic University of Catalonia (group leader prof. K. Staliunas). The project extended the initial studies to perform experiments with smaller spatial scale (micron scale) photonic structures, also with two-dimensional photonic structures.

2007 m.
  • Project „Nanostructural components of terahertz photonics” of the National-priority scientific program of Lithuanian State and Studies Foundation (2007-2009)(NanoKomponentai)  

    The project was carried out together with Institute of Semiconductor Physics.

    The project of experimental and theoretical research is addressed to semiconductor nanotechnologies for the development of compact terahertz emitters/detectors and passive THz circuit component using metamaterials. Obtained results are of essential importance determining optimal parameters and suitable working regime for the practical realization of the devices. We have employed various spectroscopic - photoreflection and electrical reflection, surface photovoltage signal and photoluminescence, terahertz photocurrent and photoresponse as well as Fourier - techniques to study experimentally beryllium and silicon doped GaAs/AlAs quantum wells and Ga,As/A1GaAs superlattices, InAs quantum dots in GaAs/A1GaAs superlattices, GaN/A1GaN quantum wells within the 4-300 K temperature range. By applying Monte Carlo and finite-difference time-domain methods we have simulated propagation of electromagnetic waves in micro cylinder-shaped terahertz quantum-cascade lasers, and pulsed THz emission from semiconductor surface and from p-i-n structures. The study was carried out in close collaboration with colleagues from Austria, Germany and the United Kingdom.

  • Project of High technologies development programme „Novel micromechanical systems and technologies” (NAMSIS) (2007-2009) 

    The project was carried out together with Kaunas University of Technology, JSC „Sebra”.

    The main project results are related with the development of the novel technologies for fabrication of the mechanical and micromechanical devices (components of the precise mechanics). Project included works in all three main areas of the development of the device fabrication technologies. The first direction is devoted to the novel improved technologies of the fabrication of the advanced precise mechanics devices. Investigations on vibration cutting application for fabrication of the precise mechanics components were performed. The second direction of the investigations was devoted to the improvement of the process control by monitoring of the tool wear condition to avoid wear-related damage of the equipment or fabricated component. To solve the problem mentioned above micromechanical force sensor was developed. The third direction of the research was related with improvement of the tools wear resistance by development of the novel technology of the deposition of protective coatings.

  • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. T-07134 “Synthesis and investigation of diamond like nanocomposite films” (DYLYN) (2007)

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) received considerable interest due to its outstanding mechanical, chemical, optical and electrical properties. Doping with both metallic and non-metallic elements and compounds can be used to control properties of DLC films. In last decade, a diamond-related material similar to diamond-like carbon was developed, which consisted of the two random interpenetrating amorphous networks of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiOx). These SiOx doped DLC films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition or hydrocarbon ion beam deposition have some advantages over conventional hydrogenated DLC films as a dielectric (insulating) layers due to reduction of the internal stress and friction coefficient, considerably better adhesion with ferrous substrates such as iron. Increase of the fracture toughness, deposition rate, optical transmittance and higher thermal stability were reported for SiOx containing DLC films as well. SiOx containing DLC films are known under the name of diamond-like nanocomposite films.

    The dependence of the structure, electrical and optical properties of the diamond-like nanocomposite films on conditions of the synthesis process was investigated. Novel method for control of the film deposition process - optical emission spectroscopy - was developmed.

  • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. T-07354 “Dot-matrix development and application” (2007)
    The aim of the project was a development and application of new methods and technological processes for optical holography in production of optically variable devices (to achieve new degree of security in documents and articles protection against counterfeiting). During this project optical scheme for dot-matrix holograms by laser beam interference lithography was developed using 442 and 405 nm wavelength lasers. The method for placement of diffractive dots, determined orientation and spatial frequency was developed. New methodology was developed and applied for dot matrix holograms characterization by two approaches: optical approach and direct (contact) measurements.
  • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. T-07312 “Ag nanostructures for investigation of the influence of ionizing radiation” (2007)
    Supermolecular silver compound synthesis methods based on dendrimeric polymers were investigated. Silver-dendrimer compounds, when exposed to particular radiation (UV, IR and ionizing), form into silver nanoparticles – zero valence clusters with a particular number of silver atoms, which corresponds to their size and amount in liquid medium. Investigation of silver-dendrimer decay kinetics under various conditions enabled to predict the access of silver nanoparticles to biological liquid medium, evaluate their stability with respect to time. Complex investigation of silver nanoclusters (X-Ray diffraction, probe methods, optical spectroscopy, electron microscopy) enabled to summarize the main steps of silver-dendrimer compound formation, their properties and applications in ionizing radiation diagnostics, recommend the technology for applications in biological and other media.
2006 m.
  • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. T-06064 „Silver nanoparticles in polymers“(2006)
    Silver colloid was produced by chemical reduction of silver salt (silver nitrate AgNO3) solution. As a reducer, sodium citrate was used. UV-VIS spectrometry indicated formation of nanoparticles. The surface plasmon resonance peak in absorption spectra of silver colloidal solution showed an absorption maximum at 450 nm. Comparison of theoretical (Mie light scattering theory) and experimental results showed that diameter of silver nanoparticles in colloidal solution is about 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles were deposited on two substrates: silica (SiO2) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) modified with various polymers (polycarbonate (PC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene (PS)). The colloidal silver was incorporated by dip-coating to the polymer-substrate structures. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRFS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results indicate that produced structures include silver nanoparticles. It was found that during deposition, silver nanoparticles forms aggregates on the surface. The size of aggregates varied from 240 nm to 400 nm.
2005 m.
  • Priority directions of Lithuanian research and experimental development program project “Fluctuation spectroscopy of new generation nanometer scale ducts with 2D electron gas” (FLIUKTUACIJOS) (2005-2006)
    The project was carried out together with PFI, VU, VU TFAI

    Project purpose: to expand the application field of original fluctuation methods created in Semiconductor Physics Institute and Noise Research Laboratory of Vilnius University by investigating ultra-fast kinetic processes and fluctuations in new generation nanoobjects made of strained silicon, strained silicon-germanium, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, gallium nitride and similar semiconductors. Objective – to participate in development of the fundamental physics of ultra-fast electronics and optoelectronics on an international level, thus influencing the development of high-tech in Lithuania and the World. The participation of the researchers from Physical Electronics Institute of Kaunas University of Technology in the project enabled to successfully solve technological problems: the researchers of this institute have experience with A3B5 semiconductors and the formation of Schottky and ohmic contact formation and surface preparation (ion beam and chalcogenide solutions). During the project, the qualification of theoretical scientists from Theoretical Physics and Astronomy Institute of Vilnius University was used.

    Objective of the research – advancement of fluctuation spectroscopy for fast and ultra-fast electronic processes and its application for investigating new generation derivatives, meant for fast silicon and A3B5 compound electronics and optoelectronics. Fluctuation methods, which were created earlier and authorized for investigation of AlGaN/AlN/GaN, AlGaN/GaN derivatives, were improved by applying for investigation of microwave range field effect transistors, including non-destructive investigation of the properties of the derivatives (on-wafer characterization). Most attention was given for strained nanometer wide silicon ducts, squeezed between SiO2 layers (SiO2/Si/SiO2), strained (pseudomorphous) Si/Ge ducts, adjusted and pseudomorphous A3B5 compound ducts with 2D electron gas, etc. Unique pulsed microwave range electronic noise measurement method was employed for hot electron energy relaxation time, hot photon decay time dependence from electric power and technology of manufacturing. Theoretical methods for ultra-fast kinetic processes, their relaxation times and fluctuation spectrum dependencies investigation were developed. Theoretical evaluation of electron mutation influence on the fluctuation phenomena in 2D electron gas was performed. Employing a unique low frequency noise characteristics measurement method, new composition ultra-fast optoelectronics devices (GaInAsP/InP, GaAs/AlGaAs and GaN laser and light diodes with nanoderivatives, InGaAs avalanche and p-i-n photodiodes) noise characteristics were investigated, their connection with aforementioned device composition, manufacturing technology, quality and longevity were evaluated. In cooperation with manufacturers, factors influencing the characteristics of the performance and longevity of these devices were evaluated as well as opportunities to improve their composition and manufacturing technology. Both theoretical and experimental investigations were performed for fast semiconductor lasers with quantum derivatives dynamic, pulse and frequency characteristics, the parameters of charge carriers and photon parameters were evaluated in the laser working area.
  • High-tech development program project “Improvement and installation of new microrelief formation technologies” (MINATECH) (2005-2006)
    The project was carried out together with KTU, VU, FI, JSC “Ekranas”, JSC “Lodvila”

    The project was designed to improve the processes of lithography, to create new and efficient micro and nanorelief forming technologies (optical holography, thermal imprint and nanoimprint lithography), to apply them in the manufacturing process of optical instruments (anti-counterfeiting marks for documents and goods) and to create next generation functional elements of organic nanoelectronics and nanooptoelectronics (photonic crystal, plane waveguide structures, field effect transistors). The project aimed to unite the efforts of science, studies institutions and high-tech industry as well as the user and installer of high-tech products (JSC “Lodvila”) in research and installation of new technologies.

    The fulfillment of the project created a new smart anti-counterfeiting technology for protection of documents and goods, which was installed by JSC “Lodvila” (press company, which has the license to print documents of securities), the technological documentation of production and control of holograms was also prepared. The new technologies were applied for the formation of a photonic waveguide device prototype (passive optical filter with dispersion compensator for 1.5 mm wavelength); a photonic plasmonic waveguide device prototype (passive optical filter and plasmonic waveguide 2-12 mm wavelength spectrum), a field effect transistor prototype (using unique materials).
2004 m.
  • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. T-04169 „Application of micromechanical systems technologies” (2004) 
    Surface micromachining technique was applied to produce electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical (MEMS) switch. Advanced nonoimprint technique was successfully applied for the creation of optically variable diffractive images by combining direct imprint of single oriented grating, forming of desired graphic art with a set of polished stamps and reactive ion etching. Electronic speckle pattern interferometer was used to register the dynamics of changes of small geometrical dimensions of samples. The dependence between phase composition of the diamond like carbon films and mechanical stresses was established using this technique. An ultrasonically enhanced anodic electrochemical etching was developed to fabricate light-emitting porous silicon material.
2003 m.
  • High technologies development programme „High technologies and equipment for human health improvement“(2003-2005)

    The project was carried out together with Kaunas University of Technology and Kaunas Medical University.

    Computer based equipment was constructed which is able to heat and cool object by thermoelectric modules, software was created. Heating and cooling kinetics of various muscles were experimentally investigated. Heat flows were evaluated by cyclic and long duration heating and cooling. Quantitative differences of various muscle groups’ reactions to the heating and cooling processes were determined.

    • Research work carried out by a group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation “Optimization of micromounted capacitive transducers structure” (2003-2005)
      The project was carried out together with KTU Institute of Panevėžys Creation of micromounted capacitive ultrasound transducer structure for ultrasonic debit meters with relation to optimal technical properties and prime cost of manufacturing.
    2002 m.
    • Complex research work supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. K-070 „Physical chemical phenomena of sorption of heavy metals in the soil, their influence on the change of activity of microorganisms and ferments and search for means for the remediation of the soil“.

      The project was carried out together with Lithuanian University of Agriculture.

      X-ray structure analysis was performed for the soil samples. Quantity of heavy metals as well as dynamics of its absorption was investigated. Efficiency of the determination of heavy metals concentration was evaluated. Limit for the sorption power was determined.

    International projects

     

    2015 m.
    • Lithuania and Belarus bilateral cooperation project funded by Research Council of Lithuania „The electronic and plasmonic properties of chemical vapour deposited graphene nanostructures“ (2015-2016)

      The purpose of the project is to determine the interrelations of structural, electronic and plasmonic properties of graphene formed by chemical vapour deposition technique and their applications for new information transfer and treatment elements.

      The objectives of the project: to optimize the chemical vapour deposition technique of graphene; to develop and optimize the technique of graphene transport from a metal catalyst substrate on the other surfaces; to determine the structure of chemical vapour deposited and transported graphene; to build up a technique of metal and metal contacts formation on graphene surface; to theoretically and experimentally investigate the effects of metal/graphene heterostructures; to create the technology of graphene nanostructures formation; to form chemical vapour deposited graphene nanostructures; to investigate their structural and electronic properties in a temperature range from 4 to 300 K; to make the theoretical model of plasmonic properties of graphene nanostructures and to carry out measurements of plasmonic properties in sub-terahertz range.

      Publications:

      • Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. UV irradiation effects on DLC:Ag films: charging of the plasmonic nanoparticles // Physics, chemistry and applications of nanostructures: proceedings of international conference nanomeeting - 2015: Minsk, Belarus, May 26-29, 2015: reviews and short notes. New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing, 2015, ISBN 9789814696517. p. 77-79.

      • Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Diamond-like carbon based silver nanocomposites – short review of the technology and novel applications // Physics, chemistry and applications of nanostructures: proceedings of international conference nanomeeting - 2015: Minsk, Belarus, May 26-29, 2015: reviews and short notes. New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing, 2015, ISBN 9789814696517. p. 319-325.

      • Komissarov, I. V., Kovalchuk, N. G., Labunov, V. A., Girela, K. V., Prischepa, S. L., Korolik, O. V., Tivanov, M. S., Lazauskas, A., Andrulevičius, M., Tamulevičius, T., Grigaliūnas, V., Meškinis, Š., Tamulevičius, S.. Micro-Raman studies of nitrogen doped twisted graphene grown by atmospheric pressure CVD on copper from decane precursor//Carbon. (Submitted, 03.2016)

    • Research Council of Lithuania funded project „Plasmonic properties of silver nanoparticles and self‐assembled clusters” (PLAS), Lithuanian–Japan Cooperation Programme (2015-2017m.)
      The purpose of the project is detailed analysis of ultrafast energy relaxation phenomena in plasmonic nanostructures, demonstrating photo-catalytic activity. Multi-faced silver nanoparticles will be arranged and manipulated into large-area clusters employing capillary force assisted deposition from colloidal solutions and using nanomasks. Masks with nanometres resolution will be fabricated using electronic and „soft” nanolithographies. Ultrafast differential absorption spectroscopy will be used for investigation of photocatalytic properties of nanostructures and ultrafast energy relaxation processes along with their dependencies on the size, shape and arrangement of nanoparticles. Heating experiments of nanoparticles will be performed and their effect on energy relaxation processes will be investigated, considering absorption of nanoparticles clusters and chosen parameters of laser influence. Tasks of the project: synthesis of different configuration of Ag nanoparticles as well as Ag‐TiO2 nanostructures; characterization of nanoparticles including morphology, shape, crystallinity, chemical composition and particle size distribution; production of two dimensional nanostructures employing capillary assisted deposition and lithographically nanostructured templates; studies of energy relaxation processes in the nanoparticles of complicated shape and two-dimensional nanostructures employing pump-probe spectroscopy; analysis of femtosecond laser irradiation modified silver nanoparticles and two-dimensional nanostructures. During the project, capillary assisted deposition method will be developed and employed for fabrication of two-dimensional nanostructures and further applications in photo-catalysis and surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy. It is expected that poly-faced Ag nanoparticles of different shapes, fabricated in the laboratory of project partners, will increase photocatalytic efficiency and TiO2 absorbance will be extended into ultraviolet and near-infrared regions, because of Ag nanoparticles influence.
    • Action Plan for the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region „Seed Money Facility” project „Baltic infrastructure for Research, Technology and Innovation” (BIRTI Platform) (2015-2016)
      The purpose of the project is to create an innovative environment for materials science development in the Baltic Sea region, creating direct added value to enterprises and innovation development of the region as a whole. BIRTI platform focuses on three priority directions: 1) a unified platform for scientific equipment with easy-understandable content; 2) R&D enterprises; 3) the possibility of platform participants to acquire new knowledge of materials science. All these activities are focused on the efficient use of equipment, R&D activities in the Baltic Sea region, by increasing the industrial competitiveness in international market. The project is designed for targeted marketing activities, working with the industry and explaining the benefits of cooperation with research institutions, creating interest of enterprises in cooperation with scientific institutions.
    • COST MP1407 project „Electrochemical processing methodologies and corrosion protection for miniaturization of devices and systems (e-MINDS)” (2015-2019), in collaboration with Vilnius University
      The main research topics involve the development of electroplating technology and application of the galvanization processes.
    • INTERREG Baltijos sea region project „Power Electronics for Green Energy Efficiency“ (Green PE)  No #R019. (2015-2019) 

      Project leader-  University of Southern Denmark.

      Project leader at KTU - prof. habil. dr. Sigitas Tamulevičius.

      The project involves widely BSR companies in the development of a technology and product roadmap enabling them to define their technology and business strategies (e.g., adequate technology, timing of investments). The project carries out three demonstration pilots in the market sectors renewable energies, e-mobility and smart buildings with 8 companies and 7 research institutions. In addition the research partners consult 14 BSR companies supporting their R&I strategy development. All project results will be spread across the BSR via dedicated technology marketing measures, thus advancing the BSR capacities in the enabling technology (http://balticgreenpower.eu/).

    2014 m.

    • Research Council of Lithuania funded project „Modelling and development of sensors based on nanocomposite thin film diffraction gratings“, implemented under the 2011-2015 years programme in the field of scientific and technical cooperation of Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania and State Agency of Science, Innovation and Informatization of Ukraine (2014-2015).

      The aim of this scientific and technical cooperation was to create novel optical sensors based on nanocomposite thin film diffraction gratings. During the project, diamond-like carbon and silver nanocomposite periodical thin films were modelled, fabricated using magnetron sputtering and investigated. Before fabrication of testing sample, the optimisation of structure parameters was performed. Scientists from Ukraine carried out the modelling and investigation of optical properties of diamond-like carbon nanocomposite materials dependence on dialectical matrix materials, nanoparticles size, shape and concentration. Optical properties of nanoparticles were investigated employing Mie theory. Effective dielectric permittivity of nanocomposite materials was modelled using Maxwell-Garnett theory. If silver nanoparticles concentration was from several tenths to several atomic concentration units, the permittivity was modelled using Bruggeman and Sheng theory. Lithuanian scientists created synthesis technology of thin films with appropriate properties. For optimization of magnetron sputtering technology, sputtering parameters and technological route were chosen. SEM, EDX, ESCA, XRD, FTIR and Raman scattering methods were used. Optical properties of thin films fabricated by reactive magnetron sputtering were compared with modelling results. Periodical structures in diamond-like carbon and silver nanocomposite thin films were created using electron and holographic lithographies. Modelling of holographic lithography interference patterns were carried out and periodical microstructures were fabricated using Lloyd interferometer. Numerical simulations of electromagnetic radiation interaction with periodical structures in fabricated nanocomposite films were carried out. Maxwell’s equations with exact mathematical model of diffraction for different diffraction gratings were used for calculations. Ukrainian scientists employed rigorous coupled wave analysis method (RCWA), and Lithuanian scientist used finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD).

      Publications:

      • Yaremchuk, Iryna; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Fitio, Volodymyr; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Čiegis, Arvydas; Balevičius, Zigmas; Selskis, Algirdas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Spectroellipsometric characterization and modeling of plasmonic diamond-like carbon nanocomposite films with embedded Ag nanoparticles// Nanoscale Research Letters (2015) 10:157.  DOI 10.1186/s11671-015-0854-y

      • Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Fitio, Volodymyr; Obitski, Yaroslav; Tamulevičius, Sigitas. Annealing effects on structure and optical properties of diamond like carbon films containing silver // Nanoscale Research Letters“ (accepted 12.2015)

    • EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region „Seed Money Facility” project “Power Electronics for Green Energy” (Green Power Electronics) (2014-2015)

      Partners: University of Southern Denmark; Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden; University of Tartu, Estonia; Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania; University of Latvia; WTSH - Business Development and Technology Transfer Corporation of Schleswig Holstein, Germany.

      The purpose of the project: to bring together key stakeholders from various technology disciplines within power electronics, wind and solar energy in the Baltic Sea Region; to involve relevant partners from the innovation ecology along the supply chain from R&D institutions, SMEs, innovation policy and business development.

      The tasks of the project: to build a consortium with particular and relevant regional partner organisations for the main project; to identify the relevant regional stakeholders to be involved in the main project; to develop a comprehensive project including specific aims, work plan, budget meeting the specific needs.

    2012 m.
    • COST MP1205 project „Advances in optofluidics: Integration of optical control and photonics with microfluidics” (2012-2016)

      The project was carried out together with research institutions from Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey and United Kingdom.

      The aim of this COST Action is to establish active interlinks between laboratories working in the fields of micro and optofluidics, optical tweezers, nanoscience and photonics, bio and soft materials, focusing their work towards lab-on-a-chip systems and at promoting long-term development of these fields in Europe. The goal is to increase the knowledge in basic physics and biology from the micro- down to the nanoscale, and to develop the future generation of lab-on-a-chip devices for portable and inexpensive, but accurate and reliable equipment.

    2011 m.
    • Transnational network of public clean rooms and research in nanotechnology making accessible innovation resources and services to SMEs in the Baltic Sea Region” (Technet_nano). Project of the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. (2011-2014). http://www.technet-nano.eu      

      The project was carried out together with research institutions from Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Sweden. Project focuses on promoting the innovation potentials of micro and nanotechnology to SMEs and R&D institutions and improving the access to these innovation resources across the Baltic Sea Region. A network was created to unify the organizations which have cleanroom facilities that are operational or under construction within the Baltic sea region. It is planned, that this network will provide services for small and medium size enterprises, which need special technological conditions, analytical or technological equipment to ensure successful activity. Most cleanrooms are specialized and adapted for specific technologies, which is why an international network such as this one improves the accessibility of equipment, technological and analytical services for small and medium size enterprises within the region, encourages cooperation and helps spread ideas of micro- and nanotechnology for R&D institutions. It is expected, that the project will also strengthen the cooperation of the network partners and initiate common projects. Databases of project partners’ competence, equipment, provided technological and analytical services and offered products will increase the visibility and help spread scientific information from high micro- and nanotechnology competence centres within the Baltic sea region. 

    • Project of the IBM Research Centre „Nanotechnological security marks for the high value products” (NANO3) (2011)

      The project was carried out in cooperation with IBM.

      This project, in cooperation with partners from IBM, was aimed at creating security marks where self-assembly of meso- and nanoscale particles is employed and a technology for fabrication of high resolution structures for this process. During the project, a technology for periodic structure formation employing laser interference lithography was developed and adapted according to the needs of project partners. While selecting optimal parameters for technological processes, diffraction efficiency measurements as well as optical and scanning electron microscopies were employed for qualitative evaluation of the structures. Formed structures were successfully transferred to project partners and applied for further research.

    2009 m.
    • "Highly Ionised Pulse Plasma Processe" COST MP0804 project (2009-2013)  

      The project was carried out together with research institutions from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom.

      Meetings of the participants took place with the aim to exchange of experience and to look for partners for the possible FP7 projects.

    2008 m.
    • COST MP0803 project „Plasmonic components and devices” (2008-2012)

      The project was carried out together with research institutions from Poland, Germany, United Kingdom, Turkey, Netherlands, Switzerland.

      The purpose of the COST Action was to foster, coordinate and strengthen scientific and technological collaboration in plasmonics in Europe. Over the past decades, plasmonics - the optics of metallic nanostructures - has emerged as a very promising technology. Two key applications of plasmonics are the processing of optical information at the nanoscale and label free biosensing. The Action covered both fields of application, since similar fundamental and technological issues are at stake. Emphasis was put on the integration of plasmonic components into CMOS and organic devices. The Action helped bridge the gap between fundamental research and European industry; it also developed and implemented a strategy for education on plasmonics in Europe.

    2007 m.
    • Nordsforsk project No.070064 „Imprinted plasmonic active surfaces” (2007-2008)

      This project brings together three research groups from three Universities (University of Southern Denmark (SDU), Helsinki University (HU), and Institute of Physical Electronics of Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania) (KTUFEI)) aimed at the development of cooperation and coordinated research in the field of new materials and structures as possible elements of future plasmonic devices. The project was based on cooperative research where all three groups have worked as experts in their fields supplementing to the achievement of the common goal - improving our understanding of the fundamental interplay between surface and transport processes at the nano-scale ultimately determining the next generation of solid state sensors. The simple, low cost procedures for building the structures suggest a potentially important role for these devices in high performance chemical and biological sensing. Surface plasmons produced in different configurations recently have been extensively used in a large variety of tools and techniques for bio- and chemical sensing by exploiting plasmon resonance in thin metallic films. Metallic nanoparticles have distinctly different optical characteristics than surface plasmons at planar interfaces. Within the current project, optical active surfaces based on periodically corrugated polymer surfaces filled with silver nanoparticles (plasmonic crystals) were produced and systematically investigated. This configuration allows surface plasma waves excitation and consequently enhancement of the photoemission sensitivity, to tune the surface plasmon resonance to an absorption band of a molecule to be detected. This kind of approach allows one as well to create controlled structures of nanoparticles compatible with high-throughput techniques (UV imprint). 

    2006 m.
    • Project of INTAS Collaborative Call with Moldova 2005 „Investigation on electrochemically manufactured materials and its tribological properties applying them for micro- and nanotechnology products” (2006-2008)

      The project was carried out together with Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium), Vilnius University (Lithuania), Ecole Centrale Paris (France), Institute of Applied Physics of Academy of Sciences of Moldova, V. I. Vernadsky Institute of General & Inorganic Chemistry (Ukraine).

      This project was directed to continue and to intensify the research activity resulting in developing methods for the electrochemical deposition of Co-Mo, Co-W, Fe-Mo, Fe-W, Co-Mo-P, Fe-Mo-P, Fe-W-P, Co-W-P rich-in-tungsten/molybdenum alloys in the amorphous/nanocrystalline state under direct and pulse current deposition mode. Developed coatings possess a set of characteristics such as superior mechanical and tribomechanical, chemical (oxidation and corrosion resistance) properties, and high smoothness allowing an increase in the applicability of the obtained alloys in the micro- and nanotechnology, especially in microelectronics, micromachining and MEMS.

    2005 m.
    • EURECA project E!3444-EULASNET-ULCOP „The New Technology of Roll Production“ (2005-2006)

      Project tasks: investigation of morphology, composition and microstructure of WCCo coverings of steelrolls; the analysis of dependence of the WCCo coverings properties on powder particle size, chemical composition and conditions of synthesis; determination of the influence of steel substrate pretreatment, technological conditions of the covering process and thickness of the coverings on the quality of WCCo layers; evaluation of the state of WCCo covered steel rolls exploited under various conditions; surface analysis of the WCCo covered rolls tested in real conditions of metallurgy enterprise.

    • NEXUS project „Imprinting of ordered organic nanofibers” (2005-2006)

      The project was carried out together with South Denmark University.

      Design and production of master matrix was performed. Hot embossing and microtransfer technology was employed for the imprinting of ordered organic nanofibers. The advanced surface analysis facilities were employed to control geometry and quality of nanofibers.

    2004 m.
    • FP6 project INCO-CT-2004-510470 „Micro and nanotechnologies going to Eastern Europe through networking” (MINAEAST-NET), www.minaeast.net (2004-2006)

      The project was carried out together with National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies (Romania), Budapest University of Technology & Economics, Dept. of Electron Devices (Hungary), University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Laboratory of Microsensor Structures and Electronics (Slovenia), Institute of Control and System Research, Dept. of Sensor Systems and Modelling (Bulgaria), Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Semiconductor Heterostructures, Kaunas University of Technology, Ultrasound Institute (Lithuania), Technical University of Kosice, Metallurgical Faculty, Dept. of Materials Science (Slovakia), Sabanci University, Faculty of Engineering & Natural Sciences, Dept. of Microelectronics Engineering, Sabanci (Turkey), National Centre of Scientific Research „Demokritos“, Institute for Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos (Greece), Association pour le Developpement de la Recherche, Techniques of Informatics and Microelectronics for computer Architecture (France), Technical University of Berlin, Research Centre of Microperipherics Technology (Germany), Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Silicon Microsystem and Nanostructure Technology (Poland).

      The aim of the project is to support a concerted effort for preparing the participation of ACC's and new Member States to projects in FP6 on micro and nanotechnologies. The main objective is networking on micro and nanotechnologies.

    • FP6 project COOP-CT-2004-5112667 „Nanoimprint lithography for novel 2 and 3 dimensional nanostructures” (3D NANOPRINT),. www.3dnanoprint.org (2004-2007)

      The project was carried out together with 8 partners from various European countries.

      Project aimed at the development of a complete process technology with the necessary tools to produce 3-dimensional nanostructures with ultra-high precision. Nanoimprint lithography was improved and adapted to 3D printing processes. As a reference application of nanoimprint lithography 3-dimensional photonic crystals were produced, since the optical properties of such devices are extremely sensitive to the quality of the production process and therefore are an excellent indicator.

    2003 m.
    • NATO Science Programme - Cooperative Science and Technology „Nano-structured functional coatings for optical and lubricating applications”.(2003-2005)

      The project was carried out together with Institute of New Materials of Saarland University, Germany.

      Germanium nanowires were CVD grown on 2D microstructured Si substrates having catalytic Ni and Au coatings.

    • Research programme „Gillibert” „Mechanical properties of thin films“(2003-2004) 

      The project was carried out together with Poitiers University (France).

      Electronic speckle pattern interferometer was used to register the dynamics of changes of small geometrical dimensions samples. Software and optical interferometer was optimised for high strain measurement using polymeric and metallized polymeric layers. Technology of free standing metal films was employed for the forming of multilayer metal structures.

    • European research, development and collaboration programme „Eureka“ project E!2776 - FACTORY INCAF „Applying of new coatings in forming processes“ (2003-2004)

      The project was carried out together with Lithuanian Energy Institute and company „Technologija“).

      Diamond like carbon, carbide and nitride coatings were grown by direct ion beam, flame spray, plasma spray on flat substrates, which chemical composition and surface structure imitate surface of real parts and instruments. Structure, surface morphology and mechanical stresses of the coatings were estimated and optimized. Hardness of the coatings, resistance to corrosion and thermal influence were investigated.

    2002 m.
    • Nordic Energy Research Program „Formation of yttrium stabilized zirconium oxide coatings by plasma spraying” (2002-2003)

      The project was carried out together with Oslo University and Danish Risø National Laboratory.

      Dependence of the composition, structure and morphology of the plasma spray formed yttrium stabilized zirconium oxide coating on substrate chemical composition and roughness was investigated.

    Self-supporting projects

    2015 m. 
    • Investigation of material and properties of the polypropylene product (chair)“ (JSC „Vaigora“) (2015)
      JSC „Vaigora“ believes plastic waste to be sore ecological problem, because of its high resistance to decomposition, and decided to make a research to help more precisely determine the amount of recycled polypropylene, which could be used in production. The company aims to contribute to ecological development and effective use of resources. One of the main problems of polypropylene products, such as chairs, used in sports and leisure activities, is material resistance to shock and UV radiation. JSC „Vaigora” makes benches, tribunes, tables for referees in various implementing projects, where plastic polypropylene chairs are needed. The company faces problems of colour fading of chair, because of UV radiation, and rupture of chair construction in case of load or if too big amount of recycled polypropylene was used in the production. During the project, the following goals were solved: polypropylene Mosten GB 506 chair was investigated using physical and chemical analysis methods; physical and chemical properties of polypropylene Mosten GB 506 chair and analogue chair were compared; properties of the product with increasing content of recycled polypropylene were investigated.
    • Transducer of heat energy to electricity” (JSC „Julsena”) (2015)

      By fulfilling of MITA innovation check financed JSC „Julsena” order, a working prototype – source of alternative energy – was developed and constructed. It had the following properties:

      - Heat energy to electricity conversion based working principle;

      - Prototype dimensions: 85.6 mm x 53.9 mm. Thickness of the slide is not critical.

      - Generated electricity parameters: electromotive force ≥2 V; voltage ≥0.8 V (load 1 kΩ).

    • Timber and chemical materials studies by physical and chemical analysis methods“ (JSC „Grigo“) (2015)
      The comparison of an oak timber characteristics was carried out (natural 6000 years old swamp oak and artificially aged oak) in order to improve the technological processes of oak wood treatment. Timber sample research: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), optical spectroscopy (UV-VIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods. Chemical materials were investigated by optical spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and atomic absorption (AAS) methods.
    • "Quantitative and qualitative analysis of chemical compounds" (JSC „Rustona LT) (2015)

      The purpose of the project was investigation of phosphorite powder quantity influence on the structure of serpentinite compound using X-ray diffraction and electron photoemission methods. The optimal amount of phosphorite powder in serpentinite compound was estimated. Recommended parameters for optimization of technological process were defined.

    • Investigation of the resistance of the indicator part of the digital electricity meter polycarbonate in case of Sun radiation” (JSC „Elgama-Elektronika”) (2015)
      The changes of the indicator part of the polycarbonate case transmissivity for 172-1100 nm range before and after exposure to a simulated solar spectrum were investigated. Using FTIR spectroscopy, vibration spectra of polycarbonate were registered before and after the test procedures and an analysis of functional molecular groups was carried out.

    2014 m.

    • The improvement of biocompatible dental prosthesis manufacturing technology” (JSC „Amicus Dentis“) (2014-2015) 
      In pursuance of Amicus Dentis company order funded by MITA innovative check, investigations of samples produced under different conditions using different surface preparation and different zirconium oxide ceramics covered with selected decorative ceramics were carried out. Using the shear and the three-point bending tests, the mechanical properties were analysed and compared. The surfaces of fractures were examined using methods such as a scanning electron microscopy and Raman analysis. The research results were applied in the production techniques of such prosthesis.
    • The Creation of holographic security labels“ (JSC „Holograma“) (2014)
      The purpose of the project was the optimization of holographic image formation technology using microdiffractive elements; the consolidation of two different methods (hologram optical doubling and  microdiffractive elements formation) of hologram formation; the creation of prototype.
    • The production of kinematic security labels with a logo“ (LR State Security Department) (2014) 
      The purpose of the project: the creation of technology of nanographics (LR State Security Department logo) integration into the optical security element.
    • The selection of the ultrashort pulse laser beam dividers geometry and technological processes for the control of the first and higher harmonic radiation diffraction spectrum“ (JSC „Altechna R&D“) (2014)
      For JSC „Altecha R&D” research, methodology of ultra-short pulses laser beam splitter geometry was created and its implementation in lithographic technologies was developed. For investigation of ultra-fast radiation diffraction efficiency a specific methodology was created. The fabricated splitters are capable to split the laser beam into two beams of equal intensities.

    2013 m.

    • Innovation voucher, JSC “Novatechas”, contract No. 31V-229 (2013)
      Experimental development service was provided, i.e. a prototype of refractive index sensor was created, its control software developed and experimental measurements with model materials were performed.
    • Innovation voucher, JSC „Lima”, contract No. 31V-230 (2013)
      Literature analysis and technical capability study were prepared. Diamond like carbon nanocomposite deposition technologies were overviewed and its application possibilities for silicon based solar cells were discussed.
    • Innovation voucher, JSC „Elkodi“, contract No. 31V-231 (2013)
      The analysis of literature has been done and a technical studio of possibilities was prepared. The advantages and disadvantages of diffractive optical elements which are available on the market and refractive index sensors were overviewed in the studio. KTU MMI developed research and achievements in the field of diffractive optical elements and refractive indices, and the technical possibilities to implement these products were described.
    • Innovation voucher, JSC „Sistemų registras“, contract No. 31V-219.(2013)
      Current security level of form was investigated and recommendations for improvements were given. The company received consultations on implementation of optical security elements. Holographic security label, which can be easily recognised by general users and experts, was created.
    • Development and investigation of means and technologies for optical document security”, Research project financed by JSC „Ukmergės spaustuvė“ (2013-2014)
      Optical document security means and technologies were developed for JSC „Ukmergės spaustuvė“.

    2012 m.

    • “Mesa-etching, microlithographic and electrode fabrication processes for THz emitters and detectors: investigation and optimization”. Research project financed by company JSC “TERAVIL” (2012-2013) 
      The aim of the work: investigation and optimization of the mesa-etching, microlithography and electrode fabrication processes devoted to the fabrication of the THz irradiation emitters and detectors. Subjects of the research: lift-off process, direct lithography process; process of the etching of the mesa-structures; annealing of the ohmic contacts; AuGe-Ni metallization layers.

    2010 m.

    • Innovation voucher; JSC „PTEC“, No 31V-96. (2010)
      Technologies suitable for fabrication of the free-standing GaN microstructures were selected. Free standing GaN on silicon structures were designed and fabricated.
    • „The investigation and optimization of photolithography and annealing processes for the production of THz radiation emitters and detectors“, JSC „Teravil“ (2010)
      Within this work scientific research was carried out to determine the optimal formation modes of terahertz (THz) radiation detectors and emitters electrodes with desired pattern, and to identify the main electrodes factors affecting the quality of the pattern. The work showed that the THz emitters with novel and improved configuration electrodes can be successfully formed using explosive lithography. The superficial micro and macro defects on the surface of GaAs epitaxial layer had the greatest impact for the visually assessed quality of pattern of electrodes formed by explosive method. According to the research data test examples of THz emitters and detectors of novel configuration were created.
    • Innovation voucher; JSC „Arcus Novus”, No 31V-82. (2010)
      Possible technologies of the fabrication of the solid oxide fuel cell components were analysed. Investigations of the components of the microfuel cells were performed. Research on fabrication of the fuel cell related membrane structures was done.

    2009 m.

    • "Optimization of electrochemical polishing of Co-Cr alloy implants and search for technologies of local „Lotos“ effect zones formation on the surface of Co-Cr alloy implants". Research contract with JSC „Implantatas” (2009) 
      During the experiments with electrochemical polishing of cobalt-chrome alloys, new electrolyte on the basis of methane sulfuric acid was created, which guarantees high polishing quality. Requirements for surface geometry and chemical composition, which might have „Lotus effect“, were analysed theoretically. Analysis of superhydrophobic surfaces formation methods was done. During experiments superhydrophobic surfaces were formed on glass plates, demonstrating possibility to create coatings, which can have a contact angle higher than 170º.
    • Photolithographic processes for fabrication of THz emitters and detectors: investigations and optimization”. Research on the best regimes of the fabrication of electrodes of the necessary pattern of the THz emitters and detectors was continued. Trail fabrication of the THz emitters and detectors of the novel configuration was performed.

    2006 m.

    • Research contract No. G-06089 with company „EMKA“ supported by Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation „Thin films formation from water dispersions by Ni coated anilox rolls“(2006)
      Electrolytic Ni coatings were used for the steel anilox roll surface forming. Anilox rolls were adopted for the forming of thin films from water dispersions.
    • Research contract with company „Blue Bridge” „Development of methodology to calculate measurement uncertainties and preparation of the project documentation” (2006) 
      Common procedure of uncertainty analysis was reviewed. Sources of errors and their distributions were identified. Procedures for evaluation of impurity concentration in water, ammonium ions identification by spectrophotometry, lead identification in the soil by atomic absorption spectrometry were described.

    2004 m.

    • Research contract with company „Ramona” supported by Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation „Research of the influence of technological and structural parameters of adhesive layer on the properties of hot stamped diffractive optical security elements” (2004)
      Hot stamping adhesive was created. Influence of the structure of adhesive and technological parameters of the forming process of adhesive layer on the properties of hot stamped diffractive optical elements was determined.

    2003 m.

    • Research contract with company „Ekranas“ „Estimation of distribution of static charge induced in TV tube cylinder by EOS electrical field and decreasing of its influence on the focusing of electron beam“ (2003)

      The project was carried out together with Institute of Materials Science of Kaunas University of Technology.

      Experimental equipment for the determination of potential of the electrostatic field and induced charge longitudinal and radial distribution in the TV tube glass neck was produced. Measurement stand was arranged. Areas of localization of surface charge were determined. Method for the formation of antistatic layer on the TV tube glass neck was proposed.

     

    LVMSF projects

    2008 m.
    • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation „Photonic Crystal Micro-Resonators” (2008)

      The project was carried out together with Polytechnic University of Catalonia and Vilnius University.

      The final goal of the project was to fabricate and to explore theoretically and experimentally such photonic crystal resonators, as well as to estimate their application for all-optical information processing. The subject of the project was sub-millimetre and micrometre length resonators filled by photonic crystals. Photonic crystals, due to their celebrated dispersion and diffraction properties, and due to their promising applications, have been intensively studied. In the applied project we have investigated a kind of hybrid system, the system combining the properties of the resonators (with the mode structures) and the properties of photonic crystals (complicated dispersion relation). The investigations of such system have been initiated in 2007, in collaboration between the Laser Research Center of Vilnius University, the Institute of Physical Electronics of Kaunas University of Technology, and the Politechnic University of Catalonia (group leader prof. K. Staliunas). The project extended the initial studies to perform experiments with smaller spatial scale (micron scale) photonic structures, also with two-dimensional photonic structures.

    2007 m.

    • Project „Nanostructural components of terahertz photonics” of the National-priority scientific program of Lithuanian State and Studies Foundation (2007-2009)

      The project was carried out together with Institute of Semiconductor Physics.

      The project of experimental and theoretical research is addressed to semiconductor nanotechnologies for the development of compact terahertz emitters/detectors and passive THz circuit component using metamaterials. Obtained results are of essential importance determining optimal parameters and suitable working regime for the practical realization of the devices. We have employed various spectroscopic - photoreflection and electrical reflection, surface photovoltage signal and photoluminescence, terahertz photocurrent and photoresponse as well as Fourier - techniques to study experimentally beryllium and silicon doped GaAs/AlAs quantum wells and Ga,As/A1GaAs superlattices, InAs quantum dots in GaAs/A1GaAs superlattices, GaN/A1GaN quantum wells within the 4-300 K temperature range. By applying Monte Carlo and finite-difference time-domain methods we have simulated propagation of electromagnetic waves in micro cylinder-shaped terahertz quantum-cascade lasers, and pulsed THz emission from semiconductor surface and from p-i-n structures. The study was carried out in close collaboration with colleagues from Austria, Germany and the United Kingdom.

    • Project of High technologies development programme „Novel micromechanical systems and technologies” (NAMSIS) (2007-2009)

      The project was carried out together with Kaunas University of Technology, JSC „Sebra”.

      The main project results are related with the development of the novel technologies for fabrication of the mechanical and micromechanical devices (components of the precise mechanics). Project included works in all three main areas of the development of the device fabrication technologies. The first direction is devoted to the novel improved technologies of the fabrication of the advanced precise mechanics devices. Investigations on vibration cutting application for fabrication of the precise mechanics components were performed. The second direction of the investigations was devoted to the improvement of the process control by monitoring of the tool wear condition to avoid wear-related damage of the equipment or fabricated component. To solve the problem mentioned above micromechanical force sensor was developed. The third direction of the research was related with improvement of the tools wear resistance by development of the novel technology of the deposition of protective coatings.

    • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. T-07134 “Synthesis and investigation of diamond like nanocomposite films” (2007)

      Diamond like carbon (DLC) received considerable interest due to its outstanding mechanical, chemical, optical and electrical properties. Doping with both metallic and non-metallic elements and compounds can be used to control properties of DLC films. In last decade, a diamond-related material similar to diamond-like carbon was developed, which consisted of the two random interpenetrating amorphous networks of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiOx). These SiOx doped DLC films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition or hydrocarbon ion beam deposition have some advantages over conventional hydrogenated DLC films as a dielectric (insulating) layers due to reduction of the internal stress and friction coefficient, considerably better adhesion with ferrous substrates such as iron. Increase of the fracture toughness, deposition rate, optical transmittance and higher thermal stability were reported for SiOx containing DLC films as well. SiOx containing DLC films are known under the name of diamond-like nanocomposite films.

      The dependence of the structure, electrical and optical properties of the diamond-like nanocomposite films on conditions of the synthesis process was investigated. Novel method for control of the film deposition process - optical emission spectroscopy - was developed.

    • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. T-07354 “Dot-matrix development and application” (2007)
      The aim of the project was a development and application of new methods and technological processes for optical holography in production of optically variable devices (to achieve new degree of security in documents and articles protection against counterfeiting). During this project optical scheme for dot-matrix holograms by laser beam interference lithography was developed using 442 and 405 nm wavelength lasers. The method for placement of diffractive dots, determined orientation and spatial frequency was developed. New methodology was developed and applied for dot matrix holograms characterization by two approaches: optical approach and direct (contact) measurements.
    • Research work carried out by a group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. T-07312 “Ag nanostructures for investigation of the influence of ionizing radiation” (2007)
      Supermolecular silver compound synthesis methods based on dendrimeric polymers were investigated. Silver-dendrimer compounds, when exposed to particular radiation (UV, IR and ionizing), form into silver nanoparticles – zero valence clusters with a particular number of silver atoms, which corresponds to their size and amount in liquid medium. Investigation of silver-dendrimer decay kinetics under various conditions enabled to predict the access of silver nanoparticles to biological liquid medium, evaluate their stability with respect to time. Complex investigation of silver nanoclusters (X-Ray diffraction, probe methods, optical spectroscopy, electron microscopy) enabled to summarize the main steps of silver-dendrimer compound formation, their properties and applications in ionizing radiation diagnostics, recommend the technology for applications in biological and other media.
    2006 m.
    • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. T-06064 „Silver nanoparticles in polymers“(2006)
      Silver colloid was produced by chemical reduction of silver salt (silver nitrate AgNO3) solution. As a reducer, sodium citrate was used. UV-VIS spectrometry indicated formation of nanoparticles. The surface plasmon resonance peak in absorption spectra of silver colloidal solution showed an absorption maximum at 450 nm. Comparison of theoretical (Mie light scattering theory) and experimental results showed that diameter of silver nanoparticles in colloidal solution is about 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles were deposited on two substrates: silica (SiO2) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) modified with various polymers (polycarbonate (PC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene (PS)). The colloidal silver was incorporated by dip-coating to the polymer-substrate structures. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRFS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results indicate that produced structures include silver nanoparticles. It was found that during deposition, silver nanoparticles forms aggregates on the surface. The size of aggregates varied from 240 nm to 400 nm.
    2005 m.
    • "Design of perfect structure of the capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers” (2005)
      The aim of the project is creation of the optimal structure of the capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (cMUT) for the ultrasonic flow meters evaluating the manufacturing technology price and technical parameters.
    2004 m.
    • Research work carried out by the group of scientists and supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. T-04169 „Application of micromechanical systems technologies” (2004)
      TSurface micromachining technique was applied to produce electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical (MEMS) switch. Advanced nonoimprint technique was successfully applied for the creation of optically variable diffractive images by combining direct imprint of single oriented grating, forming of desired graphic art with a set of polished stamps and reactive ion etching. Electronic speckle pattern interferometer was used to register the dynamics of changes of small geometrical dimensions of samples. The dependence between phase composition of the diamond like carbon films and mechanical stresses was established using this technique. An ultrasonically enhanced anodic electrochemical etching was developed to fabricate light-emitting porous silicon material.
    2003 m.
    • High technologies development programme „High technologies and equipment for human health improvement“(2003-2005)

      The project was carried out together with Kaunas University of Technology and Kaunas Medical University.

      Computer based equipment was constructed which is able to heat and cool object by thermoelectric modules, software was created. Heating and cooling kinetics of various muscles were experimentally investigated. Heat flows were evaluated by cyclic and long duration heating and cooling. Quantitative differences of various muscle groups’ reactions to the heating and cooling processes were determined.

    2002 m.
    • Complex research work supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation No. K-070 „Physical chemical phenomena of sorption of heavy metals in the soil, their influence on the change of activity of microorganisms and ferments and search for means for the remediation of the soil“.

      The project was carried out together with Lithuanian University of Agriculture.

      X-ray structure analysis was performed for the soil samples. Quantity of heavy metals as well as dynamics of its absorption was investigated. Efficiency of the determination of heavy metals concentration was evaluated. Limit for the sorption power was determined.

    Analytical equipment/services

    Mixtures, phases, structures
    X-ray diffraction
    X-ray diffractometer „D8 Discover” (Bruker AXS, Germany) is used for crystallographic structure analysis of thin films, epitaxial layers, multi-layered structures, synthesized materials or nanopowders. It is also possible to determine the thickness of crystalline and amorphous films, do analysis of texture of polycrystalline materials and residual stress of thin films. Specifications: 2.2 kW X-ray tube with Cu anode; parallel beam/Bragg-Brentano geometry; 2xGe(022) crystal monochromator; Goebel mirror (high precision multi-layered crystal monochromator for direct Cu Kα radiation), rotor absorber, spot scintillation detector; 1D LynxEye detector; laser calibrating optics; Euler (X, Y, Z, PSI, PHI) sample holder; CHI and XI automated precision table; reflectometry addition; motorized gap addition; „PATHFINDER“ optics (motorized switch between high resolution and path of high intensity X-ray). Data processing and analysis is carried out using „DIFFRAC.SUITE“ (Bruker AXS) bundle software „EVA“, „LEPTOS“, „TOPAS“ and „MULTEX“. Requirements for samples: ≥ 100 mg powder or ≥ 10 mm × 10 mm substrate; film thickness: 5 – 1000 nm.
    FTIR: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry
    Fourier transform infrared spectrometer VERTEX 70 (Bruker AXS, Germany).
    Spectral range: 400 – 4000 cm-1, resolution: 1 cm-1.
    Measuring modes: transmission, 30o reflection, diffuse reflection, total internal reflection.
    Ultraviolet/visible light spectrometry
    Ultraviolet, visible and near infrared light range optical fibre spectrometer AvaSpec-2048. 
    Spectrometer is created on AvaBench-75 symmetric Czerny-Turner construction base with 2048 pixels CCD detector. It is used to measure intensity of ultraviolet, visible and near infrared light. AvaSpec-2048 is particularly good where illumination is weak or high resolution is needed. This spectrometer is capable to measure in 172 - 1100 nm range. Resolution: 1.4 nm.
    Raman scattering spectrometry 
    Raman scattering spectrometer inVia (Renishaw,  Great Britain, 2013). 
    The complex of equipment is used for registration of Raman scattering spectra with con-focal micro-Raman optical system, as well as for measurement of luminescence. It is possible to investigate thin films, powders and liquid solutions. Raman spectroscopy gives information about composition of the material, but it can also be used to determine stress in some types of thin films. 532 nm wavelength, 45 mW power semiconductor excitation laser, 2400 lines/mm grating, thermoelectrically cooled 1024 pixels CCD, Stokes lines measurement mode: 100 cm-1 – 8000 cm-1, resolution: better than 1 cm-1. Con-focal Leica microscope with 3 objectives: x20, x50 and x100. Library of 8000 spectra.
    Chemical composition
    Universal X - ray photoelectron and ion scattering spectroscopy 
    X-ray photoelectron and ion scattering spectroscopy system, ESCALAB 250 (Thermo Fisher, 2013). 
    Surface analysis employing: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), Reflected electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS), UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Monochromatic X-Ray source: Al anode, Ar ion source for ion scattering spectroscopy, reflected electron energy loss spectroscopy; no less than 0.45 eV resolution at FWHM of Ag 3d5/2; visualization resolution: ≤ 3 µm; double charge neutralization; UV photoelectron spectroscopy system; temperature of the sample: 77 K - 1000 K; sample transfer under vacuum, vacuum: ≤ 5∙10-10 Torr.
    Energy dispersive X - ray analysis  
    X-ray energy dispersion spectrometer Bruker XFlash 4030  (Germany, 2008). 
    Spectrometer enables to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the composition of a sample by detecting chemical elements from B to Am in a selected spot (1 µm3 volume) or mapping the distribution of elements in an area. Modern 30 cm2 temperature controlled (Peltier element) X-ray silicon shift spectrometer detector ensures 133 eV (at Mn Kα line) energy resolution with a very high X-ray photon detection speed (100,000 impulses per second). 
    Atomic absorption spectrometry 
    Atomic Absorption Spectrometer Perkins Elmer Model 403.
    It is a simple double-beam spectrometer employing flame techniques. About 20 elements may be detected (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Mn, Cd, Ga, Sn, Co, Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, Rh).  Atomic absorption is a fast and simple analytical method that is especially useful when a small number of elements have to be determined in a large number of samples with moderate accuracy. This quantitative analytical technique has many applications particularly in the analysis of water, soil and stone samples. Due to simple exploitation, high speed and accurate analysis makes it one of the most popular methods for the determination of trace metals. Sensitivity of the method is about 0.05-0.1 ppm.Fields of application: ecology, materials engineering and medicine.
    Electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of devices, junctions and materials
    Picoammeter/voltage source 
    Picoammeter KEITHLEY 6487.
    Measurements of current-voltage characteristics, investigation of electrical characteristics of electronic, microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Voltage: ± 500 V, current: 100 fA – 20 mA.
    Mechanical surface roughness tester 
    Surface Roughness Tester TR200. 
    For measurements of surface roughness.
    Measuring ranges:
    1. Ra: 0.03 μm ~6.3 μm/1 μ ~250 μ.
    2. Rz: 0.2 μm ~50.0 μm/8 μ ~999 μ.
    3. Ry/R max: 0.2 μm ~25 μm/8 μ ~999 μ.
    Resolution: up to 0.01 μm/1 μ. Measurement length: 0.8 mm/0.30”; ANSI 2RC filter.
    Rockwell hardness measuring device 
    Rockwell hardness measuring device
    Measurements of macrohardness. Load: 15, 30, 45 kgf.
    Dynamic microhardness measuring system 
    Dynamic microhardness measuring system with the base HM 2000S.
    Investigation of micromechanical properties of thin films and coatings. Available load during the measurement: 0.1 – 2000 mN.
     
    Impedance analyser and high temperature vertical furnace 
    Impedance analyser ALPHA-AK and its accessories; high temperature vertical furnace TF/IC-1000, 10427 (NorECs).
    For investigation of electrical properties of dielectric materials, thin films, for testing of components of solid oxide fuel cells in various temperatures.
    Frequency range: 3 µHz – 3 MHz; 2-3 electrodes system; phase: 0.001°. Diameter of sample: 16 mm. Two „in-plane” and „through-plane” measurement configurations. The maximum heating temperature: up to 1200 °C (accuracy 0.1 °C).
    Collimated solar simulator 
    Collimated solar simulator SF150B (Sciencetech Inc. (SCI), Canada).
    It is a light source simulating Solar spectrum for photovoltaic measurements of samples. Illumination power: 1 Sun AM1.5G, class A. Deviation of illumination uniformity in beam: < 2 %. Diameter of the beam: 25 mm.
    Wetting angle tester 
    Wetting angle tester Kruss, drop shape analysis system DSA25  (Germany, 2014). 
    Measuring range: 1 - 180º, surface tension: 0.01 – 1000 mN/m, accuracy: 0.1º; 0.01 nM/m. Size of the sample: 320 × ∞ × 165 mm (length × width × height).
     
    Microscopy
    AFM scanning probe microscopy 
    Scanning probe microscopy system NanoWizard®3 NanoScience with supplements (JPK instruments AG, Germany). 
    Measurement of surface topography and mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties in air and liquids. Suitable for characterization of solids, polymers, biological samples and molecules. Also suitable for nanomanipulation and nanolithography. Working modes: contact, tapping, non-contact; microscopy of lateral force; record of phasic image; force modulation distribution (force mapping); quantitative representation: surface image based on force curves; magnetic force microscopy; force-distance spectroscopy; force-distance volume imaging mode; nanolithograhy and nanomanipulation; conduction microscopy with I/V curves registration; Kelvin probe force microscopy; capacitive microscopy. Scanning field: 100 × 100 µm; height up to 15 µm. Samples up to 100 mm in diameter and 50  mm in height.
    Scanning electron microscopy 
    Scanning electron microscope FEI Quanta 200 FEG (FEI, USA, 2007) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer Bruker XFlash 4030.
    It is one of the principal technology tools: it is equipment for imaging of nanostructures, nanodevices and surface. A modern field emission electron source permits working in controlled pressure water vapour atmosphere, thus this microscope is capable in investigating electrically nonconducting objects with high 1.2 nm resolution (resolution – minimal recorded dimension). Resolution in high vacuum is up to 1.2 nm (30 kV, SE), up to 2.5 nm (30 kV, BSE), 3  nm (1 kV, SE). Three vacuum working modes: high vacuum (< 6e-4 Pa), low vacuum (10-130 Pa), even lower vacuum (10-4000 Pa). It is possible to investigate conductive and nonconductive samples.
     
    Optical microscope with fluorescent addition 
    Optical microscope with fluorescent addition OPTIKA  (Bruker, Germany, 2011).
    Investigation of surface of various materials and micrometric measurements, fluorescence analysis. Wide-field eyepiece with micrometre scale, digital camera, fluorescence addition. Magnification: x1500. Samples up to 100 mm in diameter and 50  mm in height.
    Optical microscope (analyser) 
    Optical analyser Nikon S. 
    It is used for automatic size investigation of optically transparent structures (measurement uncertainty: 0.1+L/500 µm, where L – size of measured structure). Magnification: 1200. 800 times magnifying analyser-comparator Nikon (model N2) is used for investigation of structure size in transmittance and reflection modes. This analyser-comparator is very useful in measurement of plane topological step error. Analyser’s applications: control of photo mask, step error, control of semiconductor chips.
    Optical properties
    Spectroscopic ellipsometry 
    Spectroscopic ellipsometer GES-5 (Semilab, Hungary, 2013 ).
     Device can be used for thin, isotropic and anisotropic, transparent and opaque layers on isotropic and anisotropic, transparent and opaque substrates optical constants (k(λ), n(λ)) and thickness measurements; evaluation of periodic structure linear dimensions (scatterometry); measurements of absorption kinetics in solutions. Spectroscopic ellipsometer covers UV-VIS-NIR spectrum. Measurement angles: 12-90° with the resolution of 0.01°, ability to measure using a focused beam (70 µm × 150 µm). High resolution detector: UV-VIS (190-900 nm) with the resolution of 0.5 nm, high speed UV-VIS detector (190-900 nm): 1024 wavelengths, high resolution NIR detector: 800-2000 nm with the resolution of 3 nm. Automated sample translation stage with digital imaging.
    Laser ellipsometer 
    Laser ellipsometer Gaertner L-115 is used for the measurements of thickness and refractive index of thin dielectric and semiconducting films. Laser ellipsometry is based on the analysis of parameters of polarization of monochromatic polarized light beam reflected from the sample. Length of the light wave used is 632.8 nm. Thickness of films possible for analysis: 0.001 – 1 µm. Uncertainty of thickness measurements is ± (0.5 – 1) nm. Accuracy of the refractive index measurements: ± 0.01. Application areas: measurements of refractive index and thickness of the dielectric and semiconducting thin films, semitransparent thin metal films (< 50 nm), polymeric thin films (e.g. photo resist).

    Technological equipment/services 

    Processes of lithography
    Electron beam lithography and electron microscopy equipment
    Electron beam lithography, electron microscopy and surface analysis system e-LiNE plus (Raith, Germany, 2013).
    System is used for nanolithography, nanostructuring and materials surface and composition analysis. Electron beam energy is changing in range 20 V – 30 kV; 1 nm positioning accuracy in 100 × 100 mm2 field; diameter of round sample: up to 100 mm (4“), size of rectangular sample: up to 102 × 102 mm; magnification of scanning electron microscope with „in-lens” and Everhart-Thornley type detectors up to x1,000,000; energy resolution of energy dispersive spectrometer Bruker QUANTAX 200 with 5th generation Si detector:  < 129 eV, allows to detect elements from Be (Z = 4) to Am (95).
    Mask alignment and exposure system with nanoimprint lithography supplement
    Alignment and exposure system OAI Model 204  (SPS, Holand, 2014).
    Precision alignment with photomasks, exposure of thin photoresist layers by ultraviolet rays. Suitable for round substrates with diameters of 50, 76, 102 mm and for non-standard samples which are at least 5 × 5 mm2 in size, substrate thickness: up to 1 mm, thickness of photomask: up to 4.8 mm. The distance between the substrate and photomask is adjustable up to 50 μm. Ranges of ultraviolet light wavelengths: UV400: 350 - 450 nm; UV300: 280 – 350 nm; UV250: 240 – 260 nm (deep UV radiation). UV nanoimprint lithography supplement, supplement of double-sided alignment using infrared light. Power of exposure source: 500 W. Deviation of illumination uniformity does not exceed 3 %. Resolution: no less than 0.5 µm.
    Fabrication/modification of layers
    Vacuum evaporation equipment
    Vacuum evaporation equipment CUBIVAPT is used for fabrication of metal and dielectric films. It is oriented to production of optical interference filters and Fabry–Perot optical filters. Optical system with scanning monochromator enables control of the optical thickness of fabricated dialectical films. At the same time, thickness is measured using quartz thickness meter. Parameters of the equipment: Two 15 kW power electron guns; Two 4 kW power resistive evaporators; Substrate temperature: 20 – 400oC; Vacuum in a chamber: 10-3 Pa;
     
    Vacuum evaporation equipment  A7000E is used for fabrication of metallic and dielectric films. The thickness of fabricated samples is controlled by microprocessor and quartz thickness meter. Parameters of the equipment: Vacuum in a chamber 10-4–10-5  Pa; Two 6 kW power electron guns with four rotating position crucibles. Substrates temperature: 20 – 400 oC.
    Epitaxial GaAs layers growth system 
    Epitaxial GaAs layers growth system KRATOS
    Epitaxial GaAs layers growth, the control of grown films. For growth of epitaxial GaAs layers, 8 heated chambers are dedicated. 8 shutters are controlled by a computer. Samples are transported in vacuum. Vacuum is no less than 1∙10-10 Torr
    Langmuir - Blodgett bath 
    Langmuir-Blodgett bath.
    Equipment for obtaining (Π-A) is otherms and fabrication of mono- and polymolecular organic structures on solid surfaces using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. The equipment consists of LB bath, electronic control unit and personal computer with Windows 98/2000/XP operating system to launch the control programme. Parameters of the bath: Free surface area: 400 cm2; Working surface: 318 cm2; Liquid volume: 1000 - 1050 cm3; Surface pressure meter: Wilhelmi plate (error 0.1 mN/m). Dimensions of well: depth – 75 mm, diameter – 60 mm.
    Galvanoplastic equipment
    Galvanoplastic equipment.
    Ni film fabrication on plastic surface.Volume of electrolysis bath is 65 litres. Electrolyte – nickel plating vitriolic with special additives (brightener, coating hardener). The required temperature is kept constant by electronically controlled heating element. Electrolyte is mixed using mechanical stirrer and by pumping it through textile filter. Anode – titanium cage filled with Ni+0.1 % NiS pellets, dissolving during electrolysis. Electric current is supplied from alternating current intensity electricity rectifier (Imax = 0 - 30 A). Quantity of electricity (A/h) is measured by especial meter. Surface area of Ni layer is up to 500 cm2.
    Spin Coater
    Spin coater for thin films KW-4A with additional modules. 
    Spin coater, hotplate and UV lamp for thin film fabrication.Spin coater can be set for two different duration intervals (2 - 18 s and 3 - 60 s) and rotation speed (500 - 2500 RPM; 1000 - 8000 RPM) processes. Hotplate temperature: 30 - 300 °C, sample size: up to 6“, temperature resolution: 0.1 °C. UV module has 4 6 W lamps, wavelengths 246 nm and 365 nm, sample can be rotated (4“, 6 RPM)
    System for diamond like carbon film fabrication using ion beam synthesis
    Ion-beam diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition device URM 3.279.053. 
    The device is designed for ion-beam deposition process of DLC from hydrocarbon and dopant materials. Main parameters of the device: Base pressure in chamber: 4·10-4 Pa; Pressure during DLC synthesis: (1-2)·10-2 Pa; Accelerating potential of ion-beam source: max 2 kV; Ion beam current density: 0.05 – 0.25 mA/cm2; Current of solenoid: 6 A. Gases: both inert and reactive gases can be used.
    Microwave plasma activated chemical vapour deposition system
    Microwave plasma activated chemical vapour deposition system CYRANNUS I-6” (IPLAS Innovative Plasma Systems GmbH). 
    Crystalline diamond, carbon nanotubes, graphene fabrication. Diameter of plasma source: 6“, power of plasma source: 6 kW, frequency of plasma: 2.45 GHz, diameter for uniform deposition: 5 cm.
    Reactive etching and plasmochemical deposition system
    Device for plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process PK-2430PD. 
    The device is designed for plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of dielectric SiN films from monosilane, ammonia gas and for etching of SiO2, Si3N4 films. Main parameters of the device: Base vacuum in chamber: 1.3 Pa; Technological pressure in chamber:13.3 - 1330 Pa; RF generator power: 0 – 3 kW; Frequency: 13.56 MHz; Temperature of the substrate: 20 – 350 oC. Gases: SiH4, NH3, N2, CF4, O2, CHF3, Ar.
    Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching system
    Inductively coupled plasma reactive etching system Vision LL-ICP (Plasma-Therm, Sweden, 2013). 
    Deep reactive ion etching for microfabrication processes and formation of nanostructures. Uniformly etched area diameter: 15 cm.
    Ion etching system
    Device for ion-beam etching process „USI-IONIC“
    The device is designed for ion-beam etching of semiconductors and metal microstructures.
    Main parameters of the device: Base vacuum in chamber: 5∙10-4 Pa; Technological pressure in chamber: 7∙10-2 – 4∙10-1 Pa; Ion-beam energy: 0 – 500 keV; Ion-beam current density: 0.01 – 0.30 mA/cm2; Gases: Ar, N2, O2, He, C3F8.
    Capillary force assisted particle deposition system
    Capillary force assisted particle assembly setup. 
    Deposition of ordered arrays of microparticles from their colloidal suspensions on a template. Process can be monitored using an optical microscope with a dark field interference contrast function.
    Two component doser
    Two component doser Dopag Micro Mix E. 
    Able to mix PDMS elastomer and its curing agent at a ratio of 1:10. Minimum volume: 1 ml. Single use passive mixers are used.
    Orbital mixer
    Orbital mixer Thinky Centrifuge Mixer ARE. 
    Able to mix up to 250 ml viscous fluids (dedicated for PDMS).
    Laser technologies
    UV laser
    UV laser.
    Holographic lithography, micromachining.
     375 nm wavelength and 15 mW power laser.
    A set of optical tracts for automated Lloyd’s mirror holographic lithography system
    Lloyd’s mirror holographic lithography system (Standa, Lithuania, 2013). 
    Holographic lithography, micromachining. Structures with period of 188 - 323 nm can be fabricated (interference angle: 80 - 35º, respectively).
    Universal optical spectroscopy and laser microfabrication system
    Laser manufacturing and kinetic spectroscopy system FemtoLab (R&D Altechna,  Lithuania, 2013). 
    Micro-/nanofabrication of materials using focused laser beam (sample or beam scanning, ablation by the interference field) and absorption kinetics measurement. Yb:KGW laser wavelength: 1030 nm, power: 4 W, pulse duration: 290 fs, energy: > 0.2 mJ. Microfabrication in the 160 mm × 160 mm area can be carried out with 300 nm positioning accuracy. Table movement speed: 300 mm/s, sample weight: up to 3 kg. Excitation using nonlinear parametric amplifier (315 – 2600 nm), spectral width of the probe beam: 480 – 1100 nm, time resolution: 16.67 fs, the maximum pulse delay: 1.8 ns, the detection limit of the absorption changes: 0.5 mOD. The minimum dimensions of laser damage: 1 – 16 µm depending on the selected mode.
    Dot-matrix hologram master fabrication equipment
    Dot-matrix hologram master fabrication equipment „HENGLEI Hologram“  (2009).
    Fabrication of dot-matrix hologram master in a photoresist layer. Wavelength of laser light: 405 nm. Dimensions of fabricated dot-matrix: 200 × 200 mm2. Resolution of choice: 317; 600, 1200 dpi.
    Fabrication of optically variable security labels
    Equipment for optical security labels printing
    Microstamps fabrication equipment MSM-1.
    The equipment is suitable for printing of holograms and diffractive optical elements in multi-layered polymer films.Additional functions: fabrication of adhesive layers on polymer film or siliconized paper; cutting.
    Equipment for holograms printing
    Equipment for holograms printing.
    Fabrication of optical document and intellectual property security mediums with microdiffractive elements.Printing of optical security labels in multilayered polymer film (belt). Fabrication temperature: 50 oC – 180 oC, width of belt: 160 mm, length: 1000 m, thickness: 16 – 100 µm, printing speed: 0 - 10 m/min.
    Equipment for holograms duplication
    Equipment for holograms duplication
    Duplication of microrelief on plastic surface.Fabrication of submicrometric (nanometric) dimensions relief on plastic surface. Fabrication temperature: 20 oC – 200 oC, pressure: 0 – 900 KPa, area 200x200 mm2.